Naimark 1995 Russians

Title Information

Author: Norman N. Naimark

Title: The Russians in Germany

Subtitle: A History of the Soviet Zone of Occupation, 1945-1949

Place: Cambridge, MA and London

Publisher: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press

Year: 1995

Pages: 586pp.

ISBN-10: 0674784057 – Find a Library: Wikipedia, WorldCat

Language: English

Keywords: 20th Century | German History, Russian History | Types: Wartime Rape / Second World War

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Additional Information

Author: Norman Naimark, Department of History, Stanford UniversityWikipedia


  Illustrations (p. ix)
  Acknowledgements (p. xi)
  Abbreviations (p. xviii)
  Introduction (p. 1)
  1 From Soviet to German Administration (p. 9)
    The Commandants (p. 11)
    GlavPURKKA (p. 16)
    SVAG (p. 21)
    Institutional Problems (p. 24)
    Cadres (p. 29)
    Soviet Soldiers in Germany (p. 32)
    Political Education (p. 36)
    Culture and Leisure Activities (p. 38)
    Studying German (p. 39)
    German Cadres (p. 41)
    Building a New Administration (p. 44)
    Provincial Administration (p. 48)
    The German Economic Commission (p. 52)
    Creating a New State (p. 55)
    SVAG and the German Administration (p. 60)
  2 Soviet Soldiers, German Women, and the Poblem of Rape (p. 69)
    East Prussia and Silesia (p. 71)
    Into the Soviet Occupation Zone (p. 76)
    The Taking of Berlin (p. 78)
    Rape in the Zone (p. 83)
    The Soviet Response (p. 90)
    Veneral Disease (p. 97)
    Soldiers and Bandits (p. 101)
    Causes of Rape (p. 105)
    Germans and Rape (p. 116)
    Abortion (p. 121)
    German Men and Women (p. 125)
    Women's Politics (p. 129)
    "About 'the Russians' and about Us" (p. 132)
  3 Reparations, Removals, and the Economic Transformation of the Zone (p. 141)
    The Land Question (p. 142)
    Summer 1945)
    Vertreibung (Expulsion) (p. 145)
    Land Reform (p. 150)
    New Farmers (p. 154)
    Requisitions (p. 156)
    Collectivization (p. 162)
    Removals (p. 166)
    Sequestering (p. 170)
    Illegal Soviet Activity (p. 173)
    Cultural Trophies (p. 175)
    Dismantling (p. 178)
    Referendum on Industry (p. 183)
    Reparations in Kind (p. 186)
    The Soviet Stock Companies (p. 189)
    The Question of Productivity (p. 193)
    The Hennecke Movement (p. 198)
    The Workers and Hennecke (p. 202)
  4 The Soviet Use of German Science (p. 205)
    Atomic Scientists (p. 207)
    Rockets (p. 214)
    Osoviakhim (p. 220)
    The NTOs (p. 228)
    The Academy of Sciences (p. 233)
    Uranium (p. 235)
    Wismut (p. 238)
  5 The Soviets and the German Left (p. 251)
    The Initiative Groups (p. 252)
    Sectarians and the Socialists (p. 254)
    In Moscow (p. 257)
    Buchenwald and Brill (p. 260)
    The Mansfeld Region (p. 263)
    Meissen (p. 265)
    Schwarzenberg (p. 267)
    Berlin (p. 269)
    Unity of Action (p. 271)
    The SED (p. 275)
    The Soviets and the SED (p. 284)
    The Soviets and SED Policies (p. 290)
    Soviets and Germans (p. 292)
    The SED in Power (p. 294)
    Moscow Pilgrimages (p. 298)
    The SED and the Cold War (p. 301)
    The Party of the New Type (p. 308)
    The Last Stage (p. 316)
  6 The Tiul'panov Question and Soviet Policy-Making in the Zone (p. 318)
    The Propaganda Administration (p. 322)
    The Central Committee and the Elections of Fall 1946 (p. 327)
    Tiul'panov and the German Parties (p. 329)
    The Commission Report (p. 335)
    The Creation of the Information Administration (p. 338)
    The Renewed Attack, Summer and Fall 1948 (p. 341)
    The Last Stage (p. 346)
  7 Building the East German Police State (p. 353)
    Stunde Null – Zero Hour (p. 355)
    K - 5 (p. 360)
    Information Service (p. 364)
    Politkultur (p. 366)
    Defense of the Economy (p. 368)
    Alert Police (Bereitschaften) (p. 369)
    The Police State (p. 374)
    The Camps and their Victims (p. 376)
    Internal Affairs (p. 378)
    The Targets (p. 382)
    The Politicals (p. 385)
    Problems for the SED (p. 390)
    Soviet Concerns (p. 391)
    The Last Stage, 1948-1950 (p. 394)
  8 The Politics of Culture and Education (p. 398)
    The Problem of the Intelligentsia (p. 399)
    The Kulturbund (p. 400)
    The Society for the Study of the Culture of the Soviet Union (p. 408)
    VOKS (p. 411)
    The Society for German-Soviet Friendship (p. 416)
    Film (p. 419)
    Theater (p. 424)
    Music, Literature, and the Fine Arts (p. 429)
    Ceremonies and Rituals (p. 434)
    Universities (p. 440)
    The Problems of Sovietization (p. 448)
    New Teachers, New Schools (p. 452)
    Conquering the Intelligentsia (p. 459)
  Conclusion (p. 465)
  Sources (p. 475)
    Archival Sources (p. 477)
    Interviews (p. 479)
    Newspapers (p. 479)
  Notes (p. 481)
  Index (p. 572)


»In 1945, when the Red Army marched in, eastern Germany was not "occupied" but "liberated." This, until the recent collapse of the Soviet Bloc, is what passed for history in the German Democratic Republic. Now, making use of newly opened archives in Russia and Germany, Norman Naimark reveals what happened during the Soviet occupation of eastern Germany from 1945 through 1949. His book offers a comprehensive look at Soviet policies in the occupied zone and their practical consequences for Germans and Russians alike--and, ultimately, for postwar Europe.
In rich and lucid detail, Naimark captures the mood and the daily reality of the occupation, the chaos and contradictions of a period marked by rape and repression, the plundering of factories, the exploitation of German science, and the rise of the East German police state. Never have these practices and their place in the overall Soviet strategy, particularly the political development of the zone, received such thorough treatment. Here we have our first clear view of how the Russians regarded the postwar settlement and the German question, how they made policy on issues from reparations to technology transfer to the acquisition of uranium, how they justified their goals, how they met them or failed, and how they changed eastern Germany in the process. The Russians in Germany also takes us deep into the politics of culture as Naimark explores the ways in which Soviet officers used film, theater, and education to foster the Bolshevization of the zone.
Unique in its broad, comparative approach to the Soviet military government in Germany, this book fills in a missing--and ultimately fascinating--chapter in the history of modern Europe.« (Source: Harvard University Press)


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Translation: Naimark, Norman M. Die Russen in Deutschland. Die sowjetische Besatzungszone 1945 bis 1949. Berlin 1997.

Wikipedia: Wartime sexual violence: Rape during the occupation of Germany, Soviet war crimes, World War II

Added: February 1, 2003 – Last updated: December 6, 2014