Added: July 2, 2016 – Last updated: February 3, 2018


Author: Sara Meger

Title: Rape Loot Pillage

Subtitle: The Political Economy of Sexual Violence in Armed Conflict

Place: Oxford

Publisher: Oxford University Press

Year: 2016

Pages: 248pp.

Series: Oxford Studies in Gender and International Relations

ISBN-13: 9780190277666 (hbk.) – Find a Library: Wikipedia, WorldCat | ISBN-13: 9780190277673 (PDF) – Find a Library: Wikipedia, WorldCat

Language: English

Keywords: Modern History: 20th Century, 21st Century | Types: Wartime Sexual Violence



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Oxford Scholarship Online (Restricted Access)


Author: Sara Meger, School of Social and Political Sciences, University of, ResearchGate


  Acknowledgments (p. vii)
  Introduction (p. 1)
    Defining Conflict-Related Sexual and Gender-Based Violence (p. 3)
    How Far We've Come–Feminist Analyses of Wartime Sexual Violence (p. 5)
    A Feminist Political Economy Approach to Sexual Violence in Armed Conflict (p. 10)
    Outline (p. 13)
  1. The Securitization of Sexual Violence (p. 17)
    Sexual Violence in International Security (p. 19)
      Decontextualization/Homogenization (p. 22)
      Objectification (p. 26)
      Blowback (p. 28)
    Implications for UN Action and Efforts to Address Sexual Violence (p. 31)
    Conclusion (p. 34)
  2. Toward a Feminist Political Economy of Sexual Violence in War (p. 36)
    Sexual Violence as Political Violence (p. 37)
    Gender and the Causes of Sexual Violence in War (p. 39)
      Individual Gender and Wartime SGBV (p. 42)
      The Social/Cultural Operation of Wartime SGBV (p. 44)
    Toward a Feminist Political Economy of Wartime Sexual Violence (p. 46)
      The Structural Level: SGBV in War and the Global Political Economy (p. 49)
    Conclusion (p. 53)
  3. A Preliminary Typology of Wartime Sexual Violence (p. 54)
    Toward a Prelininary Typology (p. 55)
    Conditions of Sexual Violence in War (p. 58)
      Conventional Interstate Wars (p. 59)
      Civil Wars (p. 62)
        Ideological Civil Wars (p. 64)
        Economic Civil Wars (p. 67)
    Conclusion (p. 70)
  4. Sexual Violence as an Instrument of Terror/Torture (p. 72)
    State Terrorism (p. 74)
    Sexual Violence as State Terrorism (p. 76)
      Sexual Violence Perpetrated by National Security Forces (p. 77)
      Sexual Violence Perpetrated by Proxy Agents (p. 81)
      Sexual Violence Perpetrated by Insurgent Forces (p. 85)
    Conclusion (p. 91)
  5. Sexual Violence as a Weapon of War (p. 93)
    Sexual Violence and Economic Wars (p. 96)
    Sexual Violence in Sierra Leone (p. 101)
    Sexual Violence in Angola (p. 107)
    The Political Economy of Sexual Violence as a Weapon of War (p. 110)
    Conclusion (p. 112)
  6. Sexual Violence as an Element of Genocide (p. 115)
    How Is Sexual Violence an Element of Genocide? (p. 117)
    Only in Genocide?: Investigating the Application of International Law Against Wartime Sexual Violence (p. 121)
      Former Yugoslavia (p. 122)
      Rwanda (p. 125)
      Sierra Leone (p. 129)
    Sexual and Gender-Based Violence of the “Hierarchy of Atrocities” (p. 131)
    Conclusion (p. 135)
  7. The Political Economy of Sexual Violence in the DRC (p. 138)
    Overview of the Current Context (p. 139)
    Prevalence and Forms of Sexual Violence in the Conflict in the DRC (p. 143)
      Forces Armées de la République Démocratique du Congo (FARDC) (p. 150)
      Rebel Groups and Militias (p. 152)
    Gender Socialization and Sexual Violence in the Congo (p. 153)
      Masculinity in the DRC (p. 155)
    The Political Economy of War in the Congo (p. 160)
    The Politico-Economic Conditions of War and Sexual Violence in the Congo (p. 166)
    Conclusion (p. 171)
  8. Sexual Violence Against Men and Boys in Armed Conflict (p. 174)
    Men and Gender-Based Violence (p. 175)
    Male Rape as a Weapon of War (p. 177)
      Sexual Violence against Men and Boys in Ideological Civil Wars (p. 179)
      Sexual Violence Against Men and Boys in Economic Civil Wars (p. 183)
    Witnessing Rape as a Form of Male Humiliation and Gender-Based Violence (p. 185)
    Conclusion (p. 187)
  9. From Fetishization to Politicization and Gendered Peace (p. 189)
    Toward a Gendered Peace (p. 191)
  Appendix: List of Interviewees (p. 197)
  Bibliography (p. 199)
  Index (p. 227)

Description: »What are the root causes of sexual violence in war? From times of antiquity through the most recent conflicts in Bosnia, Rwanda, the Congo, and Syria, rape and other forms of sexual violence have been a consistent feature of war. Analyses of these more recent conflicts have prompted a surge of research into rape as a weapon of war and prompted a number of international and national initiatives to address this form of violence. This work has helped to identify rape as a deliberate tool of war-making rather than simply an inevitable side effect of armed conflict. However, much of what has been written on rape as a weapon of war has suggested that the underlying causes stem from a single motivation—whether individual, symbolic, or strategic. This singular focus has led to disagreement in the field about how we can understand the causes and consequences of sexual violence in war and about how to respond to this atrocity. Sara Meger argues that it is this approach to sexual violence in war that has rendered ineffective recent attempts by the UN, national governments, and aid and advocacy organizations to address it. Rather than identifying conflict-related sexual violence as an isolated phenomenon, this book argues that sexual violence is a form of gender-based violence (perpetrated against both men and women) and a manifestation of unequal gender relations that are exacerbated by the social, political, and economic conditions of war. She looks at trends in the form and function of sexual violence in recent and ongoing conflicts to argue that, in different contexts, sexual violence takes different forms and is used in pursuit of different objectives. Taking a political economy perspective she argues that these variations can be explained by broader struggles over territory, assets, and other productive resources of contemporary armed conflicts. As it is a reflection of global political economic struggles, she argues that sexual violence in war can't be addressed only at the local level, but must be addressed through regional and international policy. She concludes by providing some initial ideas about how this can be done via the UN and national governments.« (Source: Oxford University Press)


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– Darby, Lydia. International Feminist Journal of Politics (December 5, 2017). – Full Text: Taylor & Francis Online (Restricted Access)

Wikipedia: Sex and the law: Wartime sexual violence