Added: July 4, 2015 – Last updated: July 4, 2015


Author: Hsin-ying Li

Title: White Slavery Writing Contemplates China

Subtitle: Jean Turner Zimmermann's The Social Menace of the Orient

Journal: Tai da wen shi zhe xue bao (Humanitas Taiwanica)

Volume: -

Issue: 82

Year: 2015

Pages: 161-191

ISSN: 1015-2687 – Find a Library: WordCat

Language: English

Keywords: 20th Century | Chinese History, U.S History | Types: Forced Prostitution


Link: Airiti Library (Free Access)

Link: National Taiwan University (Free Access)


Abstract: »This paper looks at Jean Turner Zimmermann's The Social Menace of the Orient: White or Yellow (1921), one of the very few white slavery tracts focusing on white prostitution in China, as an example of how the anti-vice activists of the Progressive Era injected a moralistic discourse into American expansionism, advocating cultural imperialism while deploring the operations of economic imperialism. Zimmermann elaborates the white slavery tropes of big business into transnational female-recycling corporations dealing in fatal diseases and compares forced prostitution to war-time rape, thus revealing the fears of Asiatic threats lurking beneath white supremacy. The intercontinental career of the white slaves and Zimmermann's mission, however, blur the demarcation between the domestic and the foreign. The intersection of race, class and gender in her writing enables the author to assert the social and political rights of white middleclass women and find her niche in the Social Purity Movement; yet the marginalization of Zimmermann and her branch of the anti-vice campaign implies that the American prostitutes in China, should they be rescued, could become a menace to the American mainstream.« (Source: Tai da wen shi zhe xue bao)


  Abstract (p. 161)
  Introduction (p. 162)
  1. White Slavery Writing and Its Hidden Agenda (p. 163)
  2. Pamphlet, Prejudice and Propaganda (p. 167)
  3. The International Recycling Industry of Disease (p. 171)
  4. Rape and Imperialism (p. 175)
  5. Racial Agenda of White Women Activists (p. 181)
  Works Cited (p. 188)

Wikipedia: Sexual slavery