Leiby 2012 Violence

Title Information

Author: Michele Leiby

Title: The Promise and Peril of Primary Documents

Subtitle: Documenting Wartime Sexual Violence in El Salvador and Peru

In: Understanding and Proving Intrernational Sex Crimes

Edited by: Morten Bergsmo, Alf Butenschøn Skre, and Elisabeth J. Wood

Place: Beijing

Publisher: Torkel Opsahl Academic EPublisher

Year: 2012

Pages: 315-365

Series: FICHL Publication Series No. 12

ISBN-13: 9788293081296 – Find a Library: Wikipedia, WorldCat

Language: English

Keywords: 20th Century | Peruvian History, Salvadorean History | Types: Wartime Rape / Internal Conflict in Peru, Salvadorean Civil War

Full Text

Link: Author's Personal Website (Free Access)

Link: Forum for International Criminal and Humanitarian Law (Free Access)

Link: Harvard Humanitarian Initiative (Free Access)

Additional Information

Author: Michele Leiby, Department of Political Science, College of WoosterAuthor's Personal Website

Abstract: »This article explores the methodological obstacles to research on wartime sexual violence and the extent to which they can be overcome with archival research. It discusses issues of concept formation, counting victims of human rights abuse, and coding violations. It compares figures from the final reports of the Truth Commissions in El Salvador and Peru, an analysis of their published materials, and an analysis of the primary documents and finds that (1) the number of reported cases of sexual violence varies significantly depending on the data source, (2) men were more often the targets of sexual violence than previously thought, and (3) sexual humiliation and sexual torture were common practices of the state armed forces during the conflicts.« (Source: Article)


  9.1. Introduction (p. 315)
  9.2. Civil War in El Salvador and Peru (p. 317)
    9.2.1. El Salvador (p. 317)
    9.2.2. Peru (p. 319)
  9.3. Confronting the Past: Truth Commissions and Human Rights NGOs (p. 321)
    9.3.1. El Salvador (p. 321)
    9.3.2. Peru (p. 328)
  9.4. Data Availability and Victim Underreportin (p. 333)
  9.5. What Is Sexual Violence: Legal Statutes and Social Norms (p. 337)
  9.6. Building on International Human Rights Norms to Create Analytical Concepts (p. 345)
  9.7. Who Counts: Estimating the Number of Sexual Violence Victims (p. 352)
  9.8. Prioritization of Human Rights Violations (p. 354)
  9.9. Linguistic and Cultural Variation in Victim Reporting (p. 355)
  9.10. Constructing a New Database on Wartime Sexual Violence in El Salvador and Peru (p. 357)
  9.11. Conclusion (p. 361)
  Appendix: Guide to Collections of Archived Human Rights Documents in El Salvador and Peru (p. 363)

Wikipedia: Wartime sexual violence: Internal conflict in Peru, Salvadoran Civil War

Added: February 7, 2015 – Last updated: February 7, 2015