Leiby 2011 Violence

Title Information

Author: Michele Leiby

Title: State-Perpetrated Wartime Sexual Violence in Latin America

Subtitle: -

Thesis: Ph.D. Thesis, University of New Mexico at Albuquerque

Year: July 2011

Pages: xviii + 303pp.

Language: English

Keywords: 20th Century | Peruvian History, Salvadorean History | Types: Wartime Rape / Internal Conflict in Peru, Salvadorean Civil War

Full Text

Link: LoboVault, University of New Mexico Institutional Repository (Free Access)

Additional Information

Author: Michele Leiby, Department of Political Science, College of WoosterAuthor's Personal Website


»This dissertation examines the patterns and motives of state-perpetrated wartime sexual violence in Peru and El Salvador. Using a new database on sexual and other forms of political violence, it documents the prevalence and the patterns of perpetration of violence. It seeks to determine whose interests motivate the commission of sexual violence in times of war and why state armed forces commit more sexual violence in some regions and at particular moments during civil war than in others.
The dissertation provides a theory of sexual violence perpetrated by state militaries during counterinsurgency conflicts. It argues that sexual violence is a deliberate act of violence perpetrated to advance the politico-military goals of the state. The results of a sub-national statistical analysis show that state-perpetrated sexual violence is most at times and in locations where rebel activity presents a threat to state power but where the rebels have not yet reached dominance. State-perpetrated sexual violence is infrequent in areas where the state retains control as well as in areas where there is a preponderance of rebel power such that the state cannot engage in counterinsurgency operations without risking a significant loss of life.
Additional explanatory power is drawn from an analysis of the micro-patterns of state sexual violence and other forms of political violence in Peru and El Salvador. Victims of sexual violence are more likely to be educated women from urban centers who are socially or politically active in their communities. In addition, sexual violence is more likely to be perpetrated in private spaces and in state-run detention centers when commanding officers are present than other forms of political violence. Within the state armed forces, the army and police are more likely to engage in these forms of violence than other sectors of the security apparatus. Paramilitary groups and death squads are less likely to engage in sexual violence than they are to perpetrate other forms of violence, particularly lethal violence. The preponderance of evidence presented in the dissertation demonstrates that sexual violence is often an instrumental weapon of war wielded to defeat armed and unarmed opponents to the state.« (Source: Thesis)


  Dedication (p. iv)
  Acknowledgements (p. v)
  Abstract (p. vii)
  List of Tables and Figures (p. xii)
  List of Acronyms (p. xvi)
  Chapter 1: Introduction (p. 1)
    Candidate Theories of Wartime Sexual Violence (p. 3)
    Case Selection and Justification (p. 11)
    Data (p. 13)
    Organization of the Dissertation (p. 15)
  Chapter 2: Towards a Theory of Wartime Sexual Violence in Counterinsurgency Wars (p. 18)
    Whose Interests? Principals, Agents and Wartime Sexual Violence (p. 19)
    Opportunity Model (p. 21)
    Evidence Regarding Opportunity Model of Wartime Sexual Violence (p. 24)
    State Strategy Model (p. 32)
    Conclusion (p. 43)
  Chapter 3: Data on Wartime Sexual Violence (p. 45)
    Data Availability and Victim Underreporting (p. 45)
    What is Sexual Violence: Legal Statutes and Social Norms (p. 49)
    Creating Analytical Concepts (p. 59)
    Who Counts: Estimating the Number of Sexual Violence Victims (p. 66)
    Data Used in this Study (p. 70)
    El Salvador (p. 70)
    Potential Biases in the Data (p. 76)
    Peru (p. 78)
    Potential Biases in the Data (p. 82)
    Research Team and Inter-Coder Reliability (p. 85)
    Introducing a New Database on Political and Sexual Violence in Peru und El Salvador (p. 87)
    Conclusion (p. 88)
  Part I: Wartime Sexual Violence in Peru, 1980-2000 (p. 90)
  Chapter 4: Manchay Tiempo (Time of Fear): The Peruvian Civil War (p. 91)
    Introduction (p. 91)
    The Emergence of the Shining Path and the "People's War" (p. 94)
    The State Response: National Security and Counterinsurgency (p. 104)
    Quién Habla es Terrorista (He Who Speaks is a Terrorist): Identifying and Framing the Opposition (p. 107)
    Política del Avestruz (A Policy of Ostrich): Belaúnde's Missing Counterinsurgency Strategy (p. 112)
    Great Expectations: Alan García's Promise of Change (p. 118)
    La Mano Dura (The Hard Hand) of Alberto Fujimori (p. 124)
    Conclusion (p. 132)
  Chapter 5: Wartime Sexual Violence in Peru: An Analysis of Sub-National Variation (p. 138)
    Introduction (p. 138)
    Data and Collection Procedures (p. 138)
    Methods (p. 148)
    Findings (p. 150)
    Discussion of Outliers and Controls (p. 155)
    Conclusion (p. 161)
  Chapter 6: Principals, Agents and State-Perpetrated Sexual Violence in Peru: An Analysis of Micro Patterns (p. 163)
    Introduction (p. 163)
    Data and Methods (p. 164)
    Repertoires of State-Perpetrated Violence during the Civil War in Peru (p. 165)
    Victim Profile (p. 184)
    Perpetrator Profile (p. 184)
    Conclusion (p. 193)
  Part II: Wartime Sexual Violence in El Salvador, 1978-1992 (p. 195)
  Chapter 7: Principals, Agents and State-Perpetrated Sexual Violence in El Salvador: An Analysis of Micro Patterns (p. 196)
    Introduction (p. 196)
    The Civil War in El Salvador, 1978-1992 (p. 197)
    The Debated Prevalence of Wartime Sexual Violence in El Salvador (p. 199)
    Data Collection and Procedures (p. 210)
    Repertoires of State Violence during the Civil War in El Salvador (p. 211)
    Victim Profile (p. 218)
    Perpetrator Profile (p. 229)
    Qualitative Patterns of Sexual Abuse by State Armed Forces (p. 237)
    Sexual Violence in Rural Communities (p. 237)
    Sexual Violence in State-Run Detention Centers (p. 243)
    Conclusion (p. 247)
  Chapter 8: Conclusion (p. 250)
    Measures to Prevent Wartime Sexual Violence by State Militaries (p. 255)
  Appendices (p. 258)
    Appendix A: Guide to Collections of Archived Human Rights Documents in Peru und El Salvador (p. 259)
    Appendix B: Intake Forms from Socorro Jurídico Cristiano and Tutela Legal del Arzobispado, El Salvador (p. 263)
    Appendix C: Intake Forms from the Comisión para la Verdad y Reconciliación, Peru (p. 266)
    Appendix D: Codebook on Human Rights Violations and Violent Events in Peru and El Salvador (p. 276)
    Appendix E: Model Variations (p. 285)
    Appendix F: Agenda for Future Research in El Salvador (p. 287)
  References (p. 290)

Wikipedia: Wartime sexual violence: Internal conflict in Peru, Salvadoran Civil War

Added: February 7, 2015 – Last updated: February 7, 2015