Leiby 2009 Violence

Title Information

Author: Michele L. Leiby

Title: Wartime Sexual Violence in Guatemala and Peru

Subtitle: -

Journal: International Studies Quarterly

Volume: 53

Issue: 2

Year: June 2009

Pages: 445-468

ISSN: 0020-8833 – Find a Library: WordCat | eISSN: 1468-2478 – Find a Library: WordCat

Language: English

Keywords: 20th Century | Guatemalan History, Peruvian History | Types: Wartime Rape / Guatemalan Civil War, Internal Conflict in Peru

Full Text

Link: Wiley Online Library (Restricted Access)

Additional Information

Author: Michele Leiby, Department of Political Science, College of WoosterAuthor's Personal Website

Abstract: »This article is a comparative analysis of sexual violence perpetrated by state armed forces during the Guatemalan and Peruvian civil wars. Focusing on the type of violation and the context in which it occurs provides new insights into the motives behind its use in war. It introduces a new data set on sexual violence compiled from truth commission documents and nongovernmental human rights organizations’ reports. The data reveal that members of the state armed forces perpetrated the majority of sexual violations, that rape and gang rape are the most frequent but not the only abuses committed, and that women are the overwhelming majority of victims of sexual violence. Aggregate patterns suggest that state authorities must have known of mass sexual abuse and failed to act in accordance with international law. Moreover, some evidence suggests sexual violence is used as a weapon of war. However, mono-causal models cannot sufficiently account for the variation and complexity in its use. Even within the same conflict, sexual violence can serve multiple functions in different contexts and at different points in time.« (Source: International Studies Quarterly)


  Women's Experiences in Civil War: The Need for Separate Analysis (p. 446)
  Case Selection: Why Guatemala and Peru? (p. 447)
  Collatoral Damage or Instrumental Violence: Theories of Wartime Sexual Violence (p. 448)
    Principal-Agent Relationships and the Loss of Control (p. 448)
    Weakening the Opposition through Targeted Repression or Generalized Terror (p. 449)
    Gathering Intelligence on the Opposition Movement (p. 450)
    Genocide and Ethnic Cleansing (p. 450)
  Data Limitations on Sexual Violence (p. 451)
  Available Data for Guatemala and Peru (p. 452)
  Patterns of Sexual Violence in Guatemala and Peru (p. 453)
  Assessing the Responsibility of the State (p. 455)
  Instrumental Uses of Sexual Violence in the Guatemalan Civil War (p. 460)
    Weakening the Opposition (p. 460)
    Committing Genocide (p. 462)
  Instrumental Uses of Sexual Violence in the Peruvian Civil War (p. 462)
    Weakening the Opposition (p. 462)
    Committing Genocide (p. 465)
  Conclusion (p. 465)
  References (p. 466)

Wikipedia: Wartime sexual violence: Guatemalan Civil War, Internal conflict in Peru

Added: February 7, 2015 – Last updated: February 7, 2015