Krige 2013 Victims

Title Information

Author: Jana Krige

Title: Constructing victims and pertetrators of sexual violence in Drum magazine between 1984 and 2004

Subtitle: A discourse analytical study

Thesis: Master's Thesis, University of Stellenbosch

Year: December 2013

Pages: vii + 159pp.

Language: English

Keywords: 20th Century, 21st Century | South African History | Representations: Press

Full Text

Link: SUNScholar Research Repository [Free Access]

Additional Information

Abstract: »This thesis reports on the ways in which rape perpetrated by males on females is constructed in news stories and the advice column, Dear Dolly, published in the South African publication, Drum magazine. The data collected for the study spans from 1984 to 2004, encompassing both 10 years before and 10 years after a democracy. The paper uses critical discourse analysis (Fairclough 2003) as main analytical tool and but also draws on critical feminist theory (Bourke 2007) and other strands of discourse analysis such as Van Dijk's (1998) socio-cognitive approach. The findings suggest that there is on the one hand a decrease in explicit victim blaming after 1994, but that subtle and opaque victim blaming is still evident in the news stories, letters to the advice column, and the responses from the columnist. These rape discourses presented in Drum magazine after 1994 are as Bakhtin (1981) suggests made up of multiple voices articulating different gendered discourses. Discourses that make women responsible for their safety and protection against rape are prevalent while at the same time rape is constructed as a "horror story" and the perpetrator as the "monster". In this thesis, I argue that even though the use of less explicit victim blaming might seem like a positive move in the representation of rape and gender, this is not always the case. The more subtle forms of victim blaming avoid contestation and consequently often go unchecked (Fairclough 2003: 58). This makes the manufacturing of consent easier and makes it more difficult to counteract dominant discourses. I subsequently call for more studies on this underrepresented topic in discourse analysis in South Africa.« [Source: SUNScholar Research Repository]


  Declaration (p. i)
  Abstract (p. ii)
  Opsomming (p. iii)
  Acknowledgements (p. iv)
  Chapter 1: Introduction (p. 1)
    1.1 Background to the study (p. 1)
    1.2 Problem statement (p. 2)
    1.3 Research questions (p. 2)
    1.4 Research aims (p. 2)
    1.5 Theoretical point of departure (p. 3)
    1.6 Research design (p. 4)
    1.7 Chapter outline (p. 4)
  Chapter 2: Male to female sexual violence: A theoretical history (p. 7)
    2.1 Stipulative definition of sexual violence (p. 7)
    2.2 First-wave feminism and early rape discourses (p. 8)
    2.3 Second-wave feminism and sexual equality (p. 10)
    2.4 Third-wave feminism and transformation (p. 12)
    2.5 Feminist theories on sexual domination (p. 13)
      2.5.1 Patriarchy (p. 13)
      2.5.2 Sexuality (p. 17)
      2.5.3 Sexual domination of women by men (p. 20)
      2.5.4 Theories on why men rape women (p. 22)
      2.5.5 Society's response to violence against women (p. 26)
    2.6 Blame (p. 28)
      2.6.1 Attribution theory (p. 28)
      2.6.2 Rape myths (p. 29)
      2.6.3 The ideal victim (p. 31)
    2.7 Discursive analyses of sexual violence (p. 32)
  Chapter 3: Critical discourse analysis and the media (p. 34)
    3.1 Discourse analysis (p. 34)
      3.1.1 A historical account of discourse analysis (p. 35)
      3.1.2 The development of CDA (p. 38)
      3.1.3 Fairclough' framework of CDA (p. 45)
      3.1.4 Examples of Fairclough's framework of analysis in practice (p. 50)
      3.1.5 Critique of Fairclough's analytical framework (p. 52)
    3.2 Media discourse (p. 53)
      3.2.1 The construction of news (p. 54)
      3.2.2 Magazine exceptionalism (p. 56)
      3.2.3 Tabloid journalism (p. 58)
      3.2.4 Magazine advice columns (p. 60)
      3.2.5 Media representations of female victims of sexual assault (p. 61)
      3.2.6 Common themes in media representations of crime (p. 62)
    3.3 Theoretical concepts (p. 63)
  Chapter 4: Methodology (p. 68)
    4.1 South African social/legal context (p. 68)
    4.2 Drum magazine (p. 73)
    4.3 Data selection and collection (p. 74)
    4.4 Method of Analysis (p. 76)
  Chapter 5: Analysis and discussion (p. 77)
    5.1 Introduction to analysis and discussion of news reports (p. 77)
    5.2 Discursive strategies for the representation of victims of sexual violence in news reports (p. 79)
      5.2.1 Idealisation of victims (p. 81)
      5.2.2 Victim blaming (p. 84)
      5.2.3 Illustration of victim idealisation in a discussion of Blind, 89, and raped 3 times (21-01-1999: 14, 15) (p. 86)
      5.2.4 Illustration of victim blaming in a discussion of No angel, but also no rapist (18-11-1999: 22) (p. 89)
    5.3 Discursive strategies for the representation of perpetrators of sexual violence in news reports (p. 92)
      5.3.1 The demonisation of perpetrators of sexual violence (p. 93)
      5.3.2 The idealisation of perpetrators of sexual violence (p. 94)
      5.3.3 Illustration of perpetrator demonisation in a discussion of I was evil tycoon's sex slave (22-08-2002: 14, 15) (p. 95)
      5.3.4 Illustration of perpetrator idealisation in a discussion of He raped his way around the world (April 1987: 18, 19) (p. 98)
    5.4 Discursive strategies for the representation of sexual violence as an issue or event in news reports (p. 99)
      5.4.1 Intensification of sexual violence (p. 100)
      5.4.2 Mitigation of sexual violence (p. 102)
      5.4.3 Illustration of the use of intensification strategies for the representation of rape as horror story in a discussion of Jackrolled: tragedy of our townships (April 1994: 76-79) (p. 104)
      5.4.4 Illustration of the mitigation of sexual violence in a discussion of Tyson the Terrible is accused of RAPE (October 1991: 96, 97) (p. 109)
    5.5 Introduction to the analysis and discussion of advice column letters (p. 111)
    5.6 Letters from family rape victims seeking abortions (p. 113)
      5.6.1 Discussion of Too late for tears (April 1987: 54) (p. 113)
      5.6.2 Discussion of My half-brother raped me (September 1988: 103) (p. 114)
      5.6.3 Discussion of Pregnant after uncle raped me (May 1994: 70) (p. 114)
    5.7 Letters from family rape victims seeking to end their abuse (p. 115)
      5.7.1 Discussion of My father rapes me (February 1992: 96) (p. 115)
      5.7.2 Discussion of I'm better off dead (November 1993: 94) (p. 116)
    5.8 Letters from perpetrators of marital rape (p. 116)
      5.8.1 Discussion of I am forced to rape her (April 1988: 66-67) (p. 116)
      5.8.2 Discussion of Does my wife have the right to say no? (25-12-1997: 40) (p. 117)
    5.9 Letters from men looking to "reclaim" victimised girlfriends from rapists (p. 118)
      5.9.1 Discussion of Must I leave her? (June 1988: 68) (p. 118)
      5.9.2 Discussion of She was sexually abused (April 1991: 96) (p. 119)
      5.9.3 Discussion of Teachers snatch our girls (April 1994: 56) (p. 120)
    5.10 Discussion (p. 121)
  Chapter 6: Conclusion and recommendations (p. 125)
    6.1 Conclusionn (p. 125)
    6.2 Recommendations for future research (p. 126)
  References (p. 128)
  Appendices (p. 137)

Wikipedia: Drum (South African magazine)

Added: December 21, 2013 | Last updated: January 18, 2014