Klockmann 2013 Violence

Title Information


Author: Ida Klockmann

Title: Sexual Violence in the Conflicts of the DRC

Subtitle: -

Place: Roskilde

Publisher: Department of Society and Globalization, Roskilde University

Year: 2013

Pages: 69pp.

Language: English

Keywords: 20th Century, 21st Century | Congolese History | Types: Wartime Rape / First Congo War, Second Congo War



Full Text


Link: RUDAR: Roskilde University Digital Archive [Free Access]



Additional Information


Abstract: »This report seeks to investigate what might explain the sexual violence (SV) perpetrated in the conflicts of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) aiming to understand the reasons behind, as a means of creating preventive policies to end or minimize the acts. This report does not provide suggestions for such policies, but tries to understand. It scrutinizes explanations focusing on either intention of the perpetrators or effect of circumstances, using a heuristic method of including a wide range of theoretical explanations forming a total of six hypotheses. These are tested using various secondary empirical data material collected by organizations, institutes, and scholars studying the DRC. Consequently, the report is able to conclude that various, complementary and sometimes contradictory theories find empirical support in explaining SV perpetration in the DRC. Among examples of these findings are the theory of challenged masculinity, which is supported as explaining SV due to financial measures of being unable to provide for one’s family and due to disappointments with the corruption of the otherwise rather masculine stereotype of the military institution, while the theory claiming strategic targeting of victims due to their ethnicity is empirically questioned as explaining more than a minority of SV in the DRC. This conclusion resembles the complexity of the entire focus area, of the conflicts and the country, making simple explanations useless, and making similarly simple preventive policies highly problematic as they might overlook essentials, might have no effect and might work against their actual intention. Understanding the problem is key here, and that is what this report attempts to contribute to.«

Contents:

  Chapter 1: Research Area (p. 6)
    1.1 Sexual violence in conflict (p. 6)
    1.2 The ‘rape capital of the world’ (p. 7)
    1.3 Research question (p. 8)
  Chapter 2: Research Design (p. 9)
    2.1 Research design (p. 9)
    2.2 Deductive research strategy: Theory testing (p. 9)
      2.2.1 Intention behind SV (p. 10)
    2.3 Single case study: The DRC (p. 11)
    2.4 Method: Document studies (p. 11)
  Chapter 3: Hypotheses Creation (p. 13)
    3.1 Stage one: Background and context (p. 14)
      3.1.1 The scholars (p. 14)
      3.1.2 Time and space (p. 14)
    3.2 Stage two: Categories (p. 15)
      3.2.1 Conflict (p. 15)
      3.2.2 Sexual violence (p. 15)
      3.2.3 The perpetrator (p. 16)
        3.2.3.1 Individual level (p. 17)
        3.2.3.2 Group level (p. 17)
        3.2.3.3 State level (p. 17)
        3.2.3.4 Gender level (p. 18)
      3.2.4 The victim (p. 18)
      3.2.5 Summary (p. 19)
    3.3 Stage three: Developing hypotheses (p. 19)
      3.3.1 Sexual violence is a weapon of war (p. 19)
        3.3.1.1 Destroying fantasy structures (p. 20)
        3.3.1.2 Uncertainty (p. 21)
      3.3.2 Sexual violence and group socialization (p. 21)
        3.3.2.1 Group socialization (p. 21)
        3.3.3.2 (Fe)male bonding (p. 22)
      3.3.3 Sexual violence and patriarchy (p. 23)
        3.3.3.1 Patriarchal societies (p. 23)
        3.3.3.2 Intimate Partner Sexual Violence (IPSV) (p. 23)
      3.3.4 Sexual violence and masculinity (p. 24)
        3.3.4.2 Change in the (global) economy (p. 24)
        3.3.4.3 Misogyny (p. 25)
        3.3.4.4 Within the military (p. 26)
      3.3.5 Sexual violence and conflict (p. 26)
        3.3.5.1 Following authority (p. 26)
        3.3.5.2 Institutionalized and normalized violence (p. 27)
      3.3.6 Sexual violence and state systems (p. 28)
        3.3.6.1 Public authority (p. 28)
        3.3.6.2 Patron-client relations (p. 28)
        3.3.6.3 Disorder as a resource (p. 29)
    3.4 Answering working question #1 (p. 30)
  Chapter 4: The Case of the DRC (p. 32)
    4.1 From Free State over colony to independence (1879-1960) (p. 33)
    4.2 Mobutu’s Zaïre (1965-1997) (p. 35)
    4.3 Congo wars (1996-2003) and post-conflict (2003-2010) (p. 35)
    4.4 Answering working question #2 (p. 36)
  Chapter 5: Hypothesis Testing (p. 37)
      5.0.1 Empirical review (p. 37)
        5.0.1.1 Case reports (p. 37)
        5.0.1.2 Case narratives (p. 38)
    5.1 Hypothesis #1: Weapon of war (p. 39)
      5.1.1 Fantasy structures (p. 39)
        5.1.1.2 Ethnicity (p. 29)
        5.1.1.3 Nationality (p. 40)
        5.1.1.4 Politics and religion - and gender (p. 41)
      5.1.2 Strategy or opportunity (p. 41)
      5.1.3 Summary (p. 42)
    5.2 Hypothesis #2: Group socialization (p. 42)
      5.2.1 Group rape (p. 42)
      5.2.2 Group cohesion (p. 43)
      5.2.3 Continued male bonding (p. 44)
      5.2.4 Summary (p. 44)
    5.3 Hypothesis #3: Institutionalized patriarchy (p. 45)
      5.3.1 Patriarchy (p. 45)
      5.3.2 Intimate Partner Sexual Violence (IPSV) (p. 46)
      5.3.3 Connection between IPSV and SV (p. 47)
      5.3.4 Summary (p. 47)
    5.4 Hypothesis #4: Challenged masculinity (p. 47)
      5.4.1 Financial challenges (p. 48)
      5.4.2 The role of the feminine (p. 49)
      5.4.3 Masculinity within the military or the armed rebel group (p. 49)
      5.4.4 Summary (p. 50)
    5.5 Hypothesis #5: Militarized context (p. 50)
      5.5.1 Armed forces following authorities (p. 51)
      5.5.2 Civilian adoption of military behavior (p. 52)
      5.5.3 Summary (p. 52)
    5.6 Hypothesis #6: State system breakdown (p. 53)
      5.6.1 Biology (p. 53)
      5.6.2 The DRC state system (p. 54)
        5.6.2.1 Government (p. 54)
        5.6.2.2 Twilight institutions and patron-client relations (p. 54)
      5.6.3 SV as a resource (p. 55)
      5.6.4 Summary (p. 56)
  Chapter 6: Conclusion (p. 57)
    6.1 Explaining SV in the conflicts of the DRC (p. 57)
      6.1.1 Explanations of effect (p. 57)
      6.1.2 Explanations of intention (p. 58)
    6.2 Recapitulation (p. 59)
  Bibliography (p. 60)
    Books (p. 60)
    Research articles (p. 61)
    Interviews (p. 64)
    NGO and IO reports (p. 65)
    Newspaper and online articles (p. 67)
    Legal texts (p. 68)
    Websites (p. 68)
    Movies (p. 68)

Wikipedia: First Congo War, Second Congo War, Sexual violence in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, War rape


Added: September 28, 2013 | Last updated: September 28, 2013