Kippenberg 2009 Soldiers

Title Information

Author: Juliane Kippenberg

Title: Soldiers Who Rape, Commanders Who Condone

Subtitle: Sexual Violence and Military Reform in the Democratic Republic of Congo

Place: New York, NY

Publisher: Human Rights Watch

Year: July 2009

Pages: 56pp.

ISBN-10: 1564325105 – Find a Library: Wikipedia, WorldCat

Language: English

Keywords: 20th Century, 21st Century | Congolese History | Types: Wartime Rape / First Congo War, Second Congo War

Full Text

Link: Human Rights Watch (Free Access)

Additional Information

Author: Juliane Kippenberg, Human Rights Watch


  Map of North and South Kivu (p. 1)
  Acronyms (p. 2)
  Summary (p. 4)
  Recommendations (p. 8)
  Methodology (p. 12)
  I. Sexual Violence in Congo (p. 14)
    "The Worst Place" to Be a Woman or a Child (p. 14)
    Congo's Legal Obligations to Prevent, Investigate, and Punish Sexual Violence (p. 16)
      International Law (p. 16)
      Congolese Law (p. 18)
  II. Sexual Violence by the Congolese Army (p. 20)
    The FARDC: An Army of Former Enemies (p. 20)
    Sexual Violence (p. 21)
  III. The Case of the 14th Brigade (p. 23)
    Creation, Structure, and Development of the 14th Brigade (p. 23)
    Sexual Violence by the 14th Brigade (p. 27)
    Civilian Protest against Abuses by the 14th Brigade (p. 31)
    Lack of Clear Chain of Command (p. 32)
  IV. Limited Impact: International and Government Efforts to End Sexual Violence by the Congolese Army (p. 35)
    Action on Sexual Violence by the Congolese Government and Parliament (p. 35)
    International Action on Sexual Violence (p. 36)
      Progress in Assistance to Victims (p. 36)
      Insufficient Efforts in Protection of Women and Girls (p. 37)
      UN Action on the Policy Level (p. 37)
    Security Sector Reform: Lack of Political Will to Break with the Past (p. 39)
      Disconnected from the Fight against Sexual Violence (p. 41)
      Limited Impact of Army Training (p. 41)
      "We Live Like Dogs": Poor Living Conditions of Soldiers (p. 43)
    The Military Justice System: Prosecuting Foot Soldiers, Not Commanders (p. 45)
      Limited Progress in Prosecuting Lower-Ranking Soldiers (p. 45)
      The Military Justice System Remains Weak (p. 47)
      Military Justice and the 14th Brigade: An Example of Impunity (p. 50)
        The 14th Brigade's Reluctance to Cooperate with Military Justice (p. 50)
        Limited Action by Military Courts Regarding the 14th Brigade (p. 52)
      The Way Forward (p. 53)
  Acknowledgements (p. 56)

Description: »This 56-page report documents persistent sexual violence by the army, and the limited impact of government and donor efforts to address the problem. The report looks closely at the conduct of the army's 14th brigade as an example of the wider problem of sexual violence by soldiers. The brigade has been implicated in many acts of sexual violence in North and South Kivu provinces, often in the context of massive looting and other attacks on civilians. Despite ample information about the situation, military, political, and judicial authorities have failed to take decisive action to prevent rape.« (Source: Human Rights Watch)

Wikipedia: Sexual violence in the Democratic Republic of the Congo; Wartime sexual violence: First Congo War, Second Congo War

Added: October 18, 2014 – Last updated: October 18, 2014