Kaitesi 2014 Violence

Title Information

Author: Usta Kaitesi

Title: Genocidal Gender and Sexual Violence

Subtitle: The legacy of the ICTR, Rwanda's ordinary courts and gacaca courts

Place: Cambridge and Antwerp

Publisher: Intersentia

Year: 2014

Pages: xiii + 271pp.

Series: Supranational Criminal Law 17

ISBN-13: 9781780682105 – Find a Library: Wikipedia, WorldCat

Language: English

Keywords: 20th Century, 21st Century | Rwandan History | Prosecution: Trials / Gacaca Courts, International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda; Types: Genocidal Rape / Rwandan Genocide

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Additional Information


»Genocidal Gender and Sexual Violence tackles an important and highly topical issue. The author examines how the experiences of victims of genocidal gender and sexual violence have been addressed on a theoretical and practical level. This study investigates the contribution of feminist legal theories in naming and addressing gender and sexual violence. It questions the legacy of the ICTR and Rwanda’s domestic judicial initiatives from the perspective of the complex realities of victims’ experiences.
The research central focus is the question whether the genocidal character of gender and sexual violence in the case of Rwanda has been theorised and judged as such. The author’s training for Inyangamugayo – gacaca judges – contributes to a wider understanding of the complexity of victims’ experiences. This complex reality is further elaborated on and explored practically through an analysis of the legacy of post-genocide judicial mechanisms for Rwanda in naming and condemning genocidal gender and sexual violence.« [Source: Intersentia]


  Acknowledgements (p. vii)
  Abbreviations (p. xiii)
  1 Introduction (p. 1)
  1.1 Introduction (p. 1)
  1.2 The Research Problem and Research Questions (p. 3)
  1.3 Research Objectives and the Study Method (p. 9)
  1.4 Research Originality (p. 11)
  1.5 Definition of Key Terms (p. 12)
    1.5.1 Genocide (p. 13)
    1.5.2 Genocidal Gender and Sexual Violence (p. 15)
    1.5.3 Crimes Against Humanity (p. 18)
    1.5.4 Serious Violations of Article 3 Common to the Geneva Conventions and of Additional Protocol II (p. 19)
  2 Framework and Overview (p. 21)
  2.1 Introduction (p. 21)
  2.2 Historical Overview (p. 24)
    2.2.1 Ethnicity Debates on Rwanda (p. 24)
    2.2.2 Rwandan History (p. 28) An Overview (p. 28) Huti-Tutsi: the Social Class Narrative (p. 29) Colonisation: the Invention of Ehtnicity (p. 32) Ethnicity in the First and Second Republics (p. 36) Ethnicitiy in Rwandan Laws (p. 40) Concluding Remarks (p. 43)
  2.3 Introduction to Theory (p. 43)
    2.3.1 Overview of Applicable Feminist Theory (p. 43)
    2.3.2 Introducing Feminist Debates on Genocidal Rape (p. 45)
  2.4 Introduction to Post-Genocide Legal Responses (p. 47)
    2.4.1 The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (p. 49) The Establishment of the ICTR (p. 50) The Structure of the Tribunal (p. 53) The Jurisdiction of the ICTR (p. 54) ICTR Rules of Procedure and Evidence Relating to Gender and Sexual Violence (p. 56)
    2.4.2 Rwanda's Ordinary Courts (p. 57) The Quest for a Judicial Response (p. 58) The Normative Framework (p. 60) Structure and Functioning of Specialised Chambers (p. 60) Categorisation (p. 62) Confession and Guilty Plea (p. 63)
    2.4.3 Gacaca Courts (p. 64) The Establishment of Gacaca Courts (p. 64) Objectives of Gacaca Courts (p. 65) Structure and Jurisdiction (p. 67)
  3 The Rwandan Experience: A Complex Reality (p. 71)
  3.1 Gendered Genocidal Discourse: A Precursor to Genocide (p. 71)
  3.2 The Scope and Nature of Gender and Sexual Violence (p. 76)
  3.3 The Complex Reality as Seen from the Training (p. 80)
    3.3.1 Introduction, Context and Method of the Training (p. 81)
    3.3.2 Sharing Genocidal Experiences of Victims (p. 86)
    3.3.3 The Dilemmas: Reflections and Impressions (p. 90) The Complex Reality and Challenges on the Legal Platform (p. 90) Theoretical Challenges (p. 92)
  4 Feminist Theory (p. 95)
  4.1 General Overview of Feminist Theories (p. 96)
    4.1.1 Liberal Feminists (p. 97)
    4.1.2 Radical Feminists (p. 98)
    4.1.3 Cultural Feminists (p. 101)
  4.2 A Feminist's General View on Gender and Sexual Violence (p. 104)
  4.3 Overview of African Feminism (p. 106)
  4.4 African Feminism and Gender and Sexual Violence (p. 113)
  4.5 Gender and Sexual Violence in War and Genocide: A Feminist Debate (p. 116)
  4.6 Concluding Remarks (p. 122)
  5 The Legacy of the ICTR (p. 123)
  5.1 Introduction (p. 123)
  5.2 Prosecutor v. Jean Paul Akayesu (p. 126)
    5.2.1 Background (p. 126)
    5.2.2 The Amended Indictment (p. 128)
    5.2.3 The Akayesu Trial and Judgment (p. 130) Findings on Rape and Sexual Violence (p. 132) Discussion and Ruling on Genocidal Gender and Sexual Violence (p. 133) Ruling on Rape and Sexual Violence as Crimes against Humanity (p. 135)
    5.2.4 Analysis of the Akayesu Case (p. 136)
  5.3 The Prosecutor v. Muhimana (p. 146)
    5.3.1 Background (p. 146)
    5.3.2 The Muhimana Indictment (p. 147)
    5.3.3 Factual and Legal Findings (p. 148)
    5.3.4 Muhimana Case Analysis and Comment (p. 151)
    5.3.5 Muhimana Concluding Remarks (p. 156)
  5.4 The Prosecutor v. Nyiramasuhuko et al. (p. 158)
    5.4.1 Background (p. 158)
    5.4.2 The Amended Indictment and the Alleged Facts (p. 159)
    5.4.3 Factual and Legal findings (p. 160)
    5.4.4 The Court's Opinion on Rape as Genocide (p. 161)
    5.4.5 Analysis of the Nyiramasuhuko Case (p. 163) Defective Indictment for Genocidal Gender Rape and Sexual Violence (p. 163) Female Perpetrators (p. 166) Gender Discourse in Nyiramasuhuko's Defence (p. 169) Complexity of Testifying: Witness TA's Experience (p. 171)
    5.4.6 Final and Concluding Remarks (p. 174) Legacy on Gender and Sexual Violence against Tutsi Men and Boys (p. 175) Remarks on the Defect in not Charging Genocidal Gender and Sexual Violence (p. 180) Final Concluding Remarks for Chapter 5 (p. 181)
  6 The Legacy of the Ordinary Courts in Rwanda (p. 185)
  6.1 Introduction (p. 185)
  6.2 Gender and Sexual Violence in the Legislative Narrative (p. 190)
    6.2.1 Rape in the Government's Draft Organic Law (p. 190)
    6.2.2 Parliamentary Discourse: Rape vs. Sexual Torture (p. 191)
  6.3 Prosecuting Rape and Sexual Torture 1996-2008 (p. 194)
    6.3.1 Introductory Remarks (p. 194)
    6.3.2 The Legacy of the Ordinary Courts (p. 196)
  6.4 Guilty Pleas and their Impact on Rape and Sexual Torture (p. 202)
  6.5 Conclusion (p. 203)
  7 The Legacy of the Gacaca Courts (p. 205)
  7.1 Gacaca Justice and Gender and Sexual Violence Crimes 2001-2007 (p. 205)
    7.1.1 Introduction (p. 205)
  7.2 The Functioning of the Gacaca Courts: Their Impact on Victims of Gender Violence (p. 207)
    7.2.1 Informaton Gathering (p. 208)
    7.2.2 Confessions and a Guilty Plea (p. 213)
  7.3 Gacaca Trials (p. 219)
    7.3.1 Why the Gacaca Courts Became Competent to Try Rape and Sexual Torture (p. 221)
    7.3.2 Introduction to Amendment 13/2008 (p. 224)
    7.3.3 Parliamentary Discussions on Amendment 13/2008 (p. 225)
    7.3.4 Organic Law No. 13/2008 and Regulation No. 16/2008 (p. 232)
    7.3.5 The Gacaca Courts' Adjudication of Rape and Sexual Trials (p. 233)
    7.3.6 Conclusion (p. 235)
  8 Summary and Recommendations (p. 237)
  8.1 Summary (p. 237)
  8.2 Recommendations (p. 242)
  Samenvatting (Summary in Dutch) (p. 245)
  Bibliography (p. 255)
  Table of Cases (p. 269)
  Curriculum Vitae (p. 271)

Wikipedia: Gacaca court, Genocidal rape, International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, Rwandan Genocide, Jean-Paul Akayesu, Pauline Nyiramasuhuko

Added: March 29, 2014 | Last updated: April 5, 2014