Added: January 7, 2017 – Last updated: June 3, 2017


Author: Rachel Herzog

Title: Κακὸς Εὐνάτωρ

Subtitle: Divine Rape on the Tragic Stage

Thesis: B.A. Thesis, Barnard College

Advisor: Helene Peet Foley

Year: April 2015

Pages: 66pp.

Language: English

Keywords: Ancient History: Ancient Greece | Offenders: Non-Human Offenders / Gods; Representations: Literary Texts / Euripides; Victims: Rape Children


Link: Academic Commons: Digital Repository of the Columbia University (Free Access)


Author: Rachel Herzog:

Abstract: »This undergraduate thesis, written in completion of the requirements for a Bachelor of Arts in Classics at Barnard College, explores the representation of sexual unions between gods and mortals within Greek tragedy. The thesis begins by situating these narratives within the context of their predecessors in lyric and epic poetry before continuing to the central example of Euripides' Ion, and its parallels in the fragmentary plays of Euripides (Antiope, Alope, Auge, the Melanippe plays, Danae, and Alcmene). In the conclusion, the scope widens to briefly discuss the way these narrative frameworks are both alike to and different from the story of Cassandra as represented by both Aeschylus and Euripides. The thesis explores the ways in which these narratives combine rhetoric of injury with religious language to both portray the traumatic impact of divine rape, and its broader implications for relations between mortals and gods. I argue that, within tragedy, narratives of divine rape function as a space within which to generally explore ruptures between the human and the divine, as well as potential avenues for recuperation and healing on an individual and social level.« (Source: Academic Commons)


  Acknowledgments (p. 2)
  Introduction (p. 3)
  Chapter One: Articulating Creusa's Injury (p. 16)
  Chapter Two: Evidence from the Fragments (p. 30)
  Chapter Three: Paths to Healing and Reconciliation (p. 43)
  Epilogue: Cassandra's Rejection (p. 56)
  Works Cited (p. 64)

Wikipedia: Ancient history: Ancient Greece | Literature: Ancient Greek literature | Ancient Greek dramatists and playwrights: Euripides / Ion (play) | Mythology: Greek mythology / Apollo, Creusa (daughter of Erechtheus), Ion (mythology)