Added: June 25, 2004 – Last updated: January 2, 2016


Author: Robert M. Hayden

Title: Rape and Rape Avoidance in Ethno-National Conflicts

Subtitle: Sexual Violence in Liminalized States

Journal: American Anthropologist

Volume: 102

Issue: 1

Year: March 2000

Pages: 27-41

ISSN: 0002-7294 – Find a Library: WordCat | eISSN: 1548-1433 – Find a Library: WordCat

Language: English

Keywords: Modern History: 20th Century | Asian History: Indian History, Pakistani History; European History: Bosnian History | Types: Wartime Rape / Bosnian War



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Author: Robert M. Hayden, Department of Anthropology, University of, ResearchGate

Abstract: »Mass rape is a common but not universal occurrence in ethnic or nationalist conflicts. South Asian and Bosnian data show that mass rape is likely when such conflicts take place during the partition of a territory and its population, when the state itself is liminal and its control over its territory uncertain. In conflicts in which the state is not itself threatened, and thus groups feel that they will continue to coexist, there is some evidence that rape is avoided even when murder is accepted. However, such instances of rape avoidance are largely unstudied, in large part because of the focus on the violence of mass rape. The focus on violence tends toward classifying as improper all sexual relations between groups whose members have participated in mass rape, thus depriving women who may not wish to rejoin their natal groups of agency.« (Source: American Anthropologist)


  Bosnia 1992-95: Rape as a War Crime (p. 28)
  India (p. 29)
    Punjab 1947: Mass Violence with Mass Rape (p. 29)
    Delhi 1985 and Hyderabad 1990: Mass Violence without Rape (p. 30)
    Some Common Features: Partition and the Importance of Women's Honor to Men (p. 31)
  Rape and Territoriality: Sexual Violence in Liminalized States (p. 32)
  Negative Evidence: Rape Avoidance in Stable States (p. 33)
  Implications (p. 34)
  Conclusion (p. 36)
  Notes (p. 36)
  References Cited (p. 39)

Wikipedia: History of Asia: History of India, Partition of India; History of Pakistan | History of Europe: History of Bosnia and Herzegovina Types of rape: Wartime sexual violence | War: Bosnian War / Rape during the Bosnian War