Added: August 9, 2014 – Last updated: November 5, 2016


Author: Alona Hagay-FreyTranslator: Stefanie Raker

Title: Sex and Gender Crimes in the New International Law

Subtitle: Past, Present, Future

Place: Leiden

Publisher: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers

Year: 2011

Pages: 160pp.

Series: Nijhoff Law Specials 75

ISBN-13: 9789004189126 (pbk.) – Find a Library: Wikipedia, WorldCat | ISBN-13: 9789004215931 (ebk.) – Find a Library: Wikipedia, WorldCat

Language: English

Keywords: Modern History: 20th Century, 21st Century | Prosecution: Laws



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  Prologue (p. xi)
  Acknowledgments (p. xv)
  Introduction: The Historical Vacuum (p. 1)
  Part One: Beginning the Journey, Collecting the Tools
  Introduction to Part One (p. 9)
  1. International Law from a Feminist Perspective (p. 11)
    1.1 Private v. Public in International Humanitarian Law (p. 18)
    1.2 Feminist Self-Critique Discourse: Victim/Agent, Violence/Sex (p. 21)
  2. Law Reform and Reality? (p. 23)
  3. Rape as a Unique Crime under Domestic Law (p. 27)
    3.1 The Nexus between International Law and National Law (p. 27)
    3.2 Rape as a Gender Crime – Attacker, Victim and Society (p. 29)
      3.2.1 Society's Attitude toward Rape (p. 31)
    3.3 The Elements of the Crime of Rape under Domestic Law (p. 36)
      3.3.1 The Guilty Act – Actus Reus (p. 37)
      3.3.2 The Guilty Mind – Mens Rea (p. 41)
    3.4 The Presumption of Nonconsent in Domestic Law (p. 44)
      3.4.1 Sexual Harassment (p. 45)
      3.4.2 Statutory Rape (p. 50)
    3.5 Summary: The Unique Nature of the Crime of Rape (p. 52)
  Part Two: Sex Crimes and International Law – Past, Present
  Introduction to Part Two (p. 57)
  4. The Era of Silence (p. 59)
    4.1 Absence of Legal Condemnation throughout History (p. 59)
    4.2 The Nuremberg (IMT) and Tokyo (IMTFE) Tribunals (p. 62)
    4.3 Summary: The Era of Silence (p. 66)
  5. The Era of Honor (p. 69)
    5.1 Geneva Conventions (p. 69)
    5.2 International Treaty Law, Post-Geneva Conventions (p. 74)
    5.3 Summary: The Era of Honor (p. 77)
  6. A New Direction – Towards a New Era? (p. 79)
    6.1 The Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) (p. 80)
      6.1.1 New Rules, Adaptations (p. 85)
      6.1.2 New Judgments, Adaptations (p. 88)
      6.1.3 A Mixed Blessing (p. 93)
    6.2 Rwanda (ICTR) (p. 95)
    6.3 The ICC – A New Status Quo (p. 102)
    6.4 Summary: Towards a New Era? (p. 107)
  Part Three: Sex and Gender Crimes under the New International Law and a Proposed Solution
  Introduction to Part Three (p. 111)
  7. Summary of Achievements and Problems (p. 113)
    7.1 Sex Crimes as "Crimes against Humanity" (p. 114)
    7.2 Sex Crimes as "War Crimes" (p. 121)
    7.3 "Genocide" or "Femicide" (p. 127)
      7.3.1 Sex Crimes as Crimes of Genocide (p. 128)
      7.3.2 Gender as a Protected Group (p. 130)
      7.3.3 "Genocide" – From Silence to a New Era (p. 131)
    7.4 The Mental State – Mens Rea (p. 133)
  8. Part of Existing Crime Categories or a Discrete Crime? (p. 137)
  9. Sex and Gender Crimes as a Discrete Crime – A Preliminary Draft (p. 143)
    9.1 Defining the Victims (p. 143)
    9.2 Defining the Situation (p. 143)
    9.3 The Coerced Sexual Act (p. 144)
    9.4 Eliminating the Element of the Systematic Nature of the Attack (p. 145)
    9.5 Defining the Mental State (p. 146)
      9.5.1 Eliminating the Requirement for "Knowledge" (p. 146)
      9.5.2 The Presumption of Nonconsent (p. 146)
    9.6 Defining the Perpetrator (p. 150)
    9.7 Summary: Elements of the New Crime Category (p. 151)
  10. Preliminary Draft of a New Crime Category (p. 155)
  Summary and Conclusions (p. 157)
  Bibliography (p. 161)
  Index (p. 177)

Description: »In times of conflict, women have traditionally been excluded from protection of the law. This book analyzes the treatment of sex and gender crimes under international law by identifying various legal eras, from the inception of international criminal law until its most recent formulation, the Rome Statute. The author conducts her critical journey armed with insights about the development of the crime of rape in domestic law and feminist theories, and exposes gaps and silences in international law's treatment of sex and gender crimes. The author claims that the underlying stratum of sex crimes – the gender stratum – must be acknowledged. Hence, it is not sufficient to treat rape as another offense under existing traditional crime categories. It must also be anchored as a separate crime category that clearly establishes the boundaries of the legal norm, harmonizes different nations’ laws, and eradicates the remnants of patriarchy linked to this offense.« (Source: Brill)


Roznai, Yaniv. International Human Rights Law Review 2(1) (2013): 193-199. – Full Text: Brill Online Books and Journals (Restricted Access)

Wikipedia: Law: International law / Laws regardings rape