Added: July 19, 2014 – Last updated: November 5, 2016


Authors: Emmanuel Habimana, Carole Vacher, Berthe Kayitesi, and Callixte Kabayiza

Title: Les viols pendant le génocide des Tutsi

Subtitle: Un crime d’envie

In: Remembering Mass Violence: Oral History, New Media, and Performance

Edited by: Steven High, Edward Little, and Thi Ry Duong

Place: Toronto

Publisher: University of Toronto Press

Year: 2014

Pages: 282-296

ISBN-13: 9781442646803 (cloth) – Find a Library: Wikipedia, WorldCat | ISBN-13: 9781442614659 (paper) – Find a Library: Wikipedia, WorldCat | ISBN-13: 9781442666597 (ebook) – Find a Library: Wikipedia, WorldCat

Language: French

Keywords: Modern History: 20th Century | African History: Rwandan History | Types: Genocidal Rape / Rwandan Genocide



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Emmanuel Habimana, Département de psychologie, Université du Québec at Trois-Rivières

Abstract: »The gendered nature of crimes committed in Rwanda in 1994 is the subject of the following articles, written by a four-person team based mainly in Montreal's Rwandan community: Emmanuel Habimana, Carole Vacher, Berthe Kayitesi and Callixte Kabayiza. Their paper examines the use of rape by Hutu militia during the genocide, contextualizing the sadistic violence described in the public testimony of Madame Mukarwego. According to various sources, including African Rights and Human Rights Watch, more than 300,000 Tutsi women and girls as young as ten were raped during the genocide. Men and young boys were also raped. The authors characterize rape as a "rape of envy." Tutsi women were targeted because, for some, they had become a powerful symbol of privilege and physical beauty. Mass rape became a weapon of extermination. Those women who survived this trauma have faced public hostility and serious health issues (e.g., HIV). Yet these rapes have been met mainly by silence. "In reality, the scale of the rapes during the genocide remains unknown," they write. Madame Mukarwego's testimony challenges both silence and cultural taboos.« (Source: Steven High and Edward Little. »Introduction.« Remembering Mass Violence: Oral History, New Media, and Performance. Edited by Steven High et al. Toronto 2014: 24)


  Préludes au génocide (p. 282)
  Une société rongée par l'envie (p. 284)
  Comment naît l'envie ? (p. 286)
  Les crimes de l'envie durant le génocide des Tutsi (p. 286)
  La « libération » des femmes Tutsi ou les viols légalisés (p.288)
  Le viol : Un acte entouré de silence (p. 290)
  La femme Tutsi, une véritable obsession pour les Hutu durant le génocide (p. 293)
  Conclusion (p. 294)
  Notes (p. 295)


Alexander, Sam. Oral History Forum d'histoire orale Special Issue (2014). – Full Text: Oral History Forum (Free Access)

Freund, Alexander. University of Toronto Quarterly 85(3) (Summer 2016): 364-365. – Full Text: Project MUSE (Restricted Access)

Wikipedia: History of Africa: History of Rwanda | Genocide: Rwandan genocide / Rape during the Rwandan Genocide | Types of rape: Genocidal rape