Added: November 5, 2016 – Last updated: January 6, 2018


Author: Alhena Gadotti

Title: Why It was Rape

Subtitle: The Conceptualization of Rape in Sumerian Literature

Journal: Journal of the American Oriental Society

Volume: 129

Issue: 1

Year: January-March 2009

Pages: 73-82

ISSN: 0003-0279 – Find a Library: WordCat

Language: English

Keywords: Ancient History: Ancient Near East | Cases: Offenders / Enki, Enlil, Šukaletuda; Cases: Victims / Inanna, Nin-imma, Nin-nisig, Ninkurra, Ninlil; Offenders: Biological Status / Gods; Offenders: Kinship / Fathers; Representations: Literary Texts / Sumerian Literature; Victims: Biological Status / Gods; Victims: Kinship / Daughters; Victims: Physical Status / Virginity; Victims: Social Status / Unmarried Women; Victims: State of Consciousness / Sleep



EBSCOhost (Restricted Access)

JSTOR (Restricted Access)


Author: Alhena Gadotti, Department of History, Towson University

Abstract: »The article presents a discussion of the conceptualization of rape in "Enlil and Ninlil" and "Enki and Ninhursaga," both examples of Sumerian literature. The author argues that rapes were evident due to the lack of consent to the intercourse by the victims and the fact that the victims were young and sexually inexperienced. She also states that upon closer examination of the two literary compositions, she concluded that not only do the compositions share the same topic of rape, they have access to similar pools of ideas and expressions.« (Source: EBSCOhost)


  Introduction (p. 73)
  Definition of rape (p. 73)
  Rape in Sumerian Literary Texts (p. 74)
  "Enki and Ninhursaĝa" (p. 74)
  Inana and Šukaletuda (p. 77)
  "Enlil and Ninlil" (p. 78)
  Discussion (p. 81)

Wikipedia: Ancient history: Ancient Near East / History of Sumer | Literature: Sumerian literature / Enlil and Ninlil, Ninhursag | Mythology: Sumerian creation myth / Enki, Enlil | Mythology: Mythological rape victims / Inanna, Nin-imma, Ninkurra, Ninlil