Added: May 7, 2016 – Last updated: November 5, 2016


Author: Kathy L. Gaca

Title: Martial Rape, Pulsating Fear, and the Sexual Maltreatment of Girls (παῖδες), Virgins (παρθένοι), and Women (γυναῖκες) in Antiquity

Subtitle: -

Journal: American Journal of Philology

Volume: 135

Issue: 3

Year: Fall 2014

Pages: 303-357

ISSN: 0002-9475 – Find a Library: WordCat | eISSN: 1086-3168 – Find a Library: WordCat

Language: English

Keywords: Ancient History: Ancient Greece | Types: Wartime Rape; Victims: Girls


Link: Project MUSE (Restricted Access)


Author: Kathy L. Gaca, Department of Classical Studies, Vanderbilt University

Abstract: »The variably sequenced tripartite noun phrase, παῖδες, παρθένοι, and γυναῖκες, is shown to be a coordinated noun series signifying “girls, virgins, and women,” not, as hitherto interpreted, παῖδες as “male youths” or as “boy and girl children” plus “virgins and women.” Further, “virgins” in this phrase is primarily an age designation meaning “emergent adolescent or virgin-aged girls.” The tripartite phrase is thus female-specific, and it reflects the three life stages of underage girlhood, emergent adolescent “virginhood” (or maidenhood), and womanhood as a sexually active wifehood and procreative motherhood. In relation to female groups, the tripartite phrase refers to females of mixed ages from girlhood to child-bearing womanhood. Although important in itself for raising the social visibility of girls and women in antiquity, this semantic argument also brings forth important new evidence from the orator Hyperides, the Peripatetic Clearchus, the historian Diodorus, and the Roman imperial-era Adoulis inscription about the sexual tenor and sexually acquisitive goals of populace-ravaging warfare against underage girls, virgin-aged girls, and women. The Neoplatonist Proclus discloses the resultant social availability of underage girls, virgin-aged girls, and women to be sexually objectified and maltreated. These new insights reaffirm the value of linguistics and philology as powerful tools of socio-historical inquiry.« (Source: American Journal of Philology)


  Abstract (p. 303)
  Introduction (p. 303)
  The Tripartite Noun Series as Girls, Virgins, and Women (p. 311)
  Euripides and the Alexandrian Grammarian Philoxenus (p. 314)
  The Tripartite Noun Series in Hyperides, Marcellinus, and Diodorus Siculus (p. 316)
  Clearchus on the Ravaging of Carbina in Southern Italy by Tarentine Forces (p. 324)
  Lycophronides (p. 331)
  The Ravaging of the Ethiopian Seseans by a Hellenized Overlord (p. 332)
  The Corresponding Bipartite Coordinated Noun Series (p. 337)
  Proclus on Male-Authored Erotic Poetry for Women, Girls, and Virgins (p. 339)
  Conclusion (p. 349)
  Bibliography (p. 353)

Wikipedia: Ancient history: Ancient Greece | Types of rape: Wartime sexual violence