Added: June 4, 2016 – Last updated: June 4, 2016


Author: Kelsey Fritz

Title: From Victims to Actors

Subtitle: Women's Struggle for Agency in Defeated Germany, 1945

Thesis: Senior Honors Thesis, University of Tennessee at Knoxville

Advisor: Vejas Liulevicius

Year: April 2016

Pages: 53pp.

Language: English

Keywords: Modern History: 20th Century | European History: German History, Russian History | Types: Wartime Rape / Second World War


Link: Trace: Digital Archive of the University of Tennessee (Free Access)



  Introduction (p. 2)
  Viewpoints of Defeat (p. 3)
  The End of Normality and the Struggle to Remain Actors (p. 6)
  Bombing and Shelling (p. 8)
  Physical Devastation and Lack of Services (p. 12)
  Lack of Food (p. 17)
  Attempts to Force Local Surrenders (p. 20)
  The Question of Collective Guilt (p. 25)
  The Trauma of Rape (p. 29)
  The Development of Fraternization (p. 38)
  Conclusion (p. 42)
  Figure 1: The Occupation Zones of Germany, 1945 (p. 47)
  Figure 2: Map of Bavaria (p. 48)
  Figure 3: Berlin in ruins, 1945 (p. 49)
  Figure 4: A ruined street in Berlin, 1945 (p. 50)
  Figure 5: German women doing their washing at a public water pump (p. 51)
  Bibliography (p. 52)
    Primary Sources (p. 52)
    Secondary Sources (p. 52)

Wikipedia: History of Europe: Germany, Russia / History of the Soviet Union (1927–53) | Types of rape: Wartime sexual violence | War: World War II / Rape during the occupation of Germany, Soviet war crimes