Flaschka 2009 Rape

Title Information

Author: Monica J. Flaschka

Title: Race, Rape and Gender in Nazi-Occupied Territories

Subtitle: -

Thesis: Ph.D. Thesis, Kent State University

Year: December 2009

Pages: ix + 261pp.

Language: English

Keywords: 20th Century | German History, Polish History, Russian History | Types: Wartime Rape / Second World War

Full Text

Link: OhioLINK [Free Access]

Additional Information

Abstract: »Despite the vast historiography of the Second World War, scholars have long overlooked sexual violence committed by the German military in the occupied territories. Using a linguistic analysis of court documents, this dissertation examines cases against German soldiers accused of rape, attempted rape, child abuse, and violations of the law against homosexuality, as well as cases against ethnic Germans and Poles in the occupied territories, to determine how Nazi racial and gender ideology affected the determination of punishment. The documents clearly demonstrate the importance of gender ideology, particularly constructs of heterosexual masculinity, in the sentencing proceedings. Men were evaluated as men; as soldiers; and as Germans, as members of the Volk. Ethnic Germans were also subject to the same evaluation, but Poles were not offered mitigating circumstances because of the threat the judges believed they posed to German women. Women too were evaluated, and the degree to which the judges thought they acted in accordance with normative gender roles affected the determination of punishment. What had an unpredictable effect, however, was the alleged racial quality of the woman assaulted by the German soldier; it mattered less what her “racial quality” was than whether she conformed to gendered behavioral expectations, and whether the German soldier did as well. Racial ideology was most definitely a factor in sex crimes cases, but more so in expectations placed upon soldiers as German men than in discussions of the “racial inferiority” of women. What the court-martial documents illustrate is that Nazi racial ideology was incoherent and unstable, with high-ranking members of the Party and the military incapable of establishing who should be considered racially inferior and what that should mean in the sentencing of men accused of sex crimes. The documents further illustrate the importance of gender ideology to the determination of sentencing. Lastly, this dissertation argues that the courts-martial functioned as the site of the discursive creation and negotiation of the most important identity of the regime, the Nazi German man.« [Source: OhioLINK]


  Acknowledgments (p. v)
  Chapter I. Introduction (p. 1)
    Historiography (p. 4)
    From German to Nazi Ideologies (p. 27)
    Analytical Framework and Purpose (p. 31)
    Methodology (p. 38)
    Chapter Outline (p. 43)
  Chapter II. "[A]lways the worst of their Volk: Constructions of Femininity (p. 47)
    The Debates about "Racial Inferiority" (p. 49)
    The Rape of Jewish Women (p. 61)
    The Intersection of Gender and Race in Assaults on Non-German Women (p. 63)
    Mothers of the Race (p. 78)
    Conclusion (p. 90)
  Chapter III. "Not Like German Soldiers": Constructions of Heterosexual Masculinity in Cases of Rape (p. 93)
    The Tensions Surrounding Abstinence and Rape (p. 96)
    Soldierly Ability (p. 102)
    The Reputation of the Wehrmacht, The Troop, and the Uniform (p. 115)
    Wieder gut zu Machen (p. 125)
    Conclusion (p. 129)
  Chapter IV. "[T]he Greatest Danger to the Military": Homosexuality and the Threat to the Heterosexuality of the Military, the Nation, and the Race (p. 137)
    The Threat of Homosexuality (p. 140)
    The Heterosexuality of the Military (p. 146)
    Abstinence does not Obtain (p. 153)
    The Image of Heterosexual Masculinity (p. 159)
    Wieder gut zu Machen (p. 167)
    Conclusion (p. 171)
  Chapter V. "She Makes a Sensual Impression": The Sexual Abuse of Children (p. 177)
    Physical Development, Moral Quality, Intelligence, and the Absence of Trauma (p. 182)
    A Punishable Offense (p. 192)
    The Treat to the Heterosexuality of the Nation (p. 197)
    Wieder gut zu Machen (p. 203)
    Conclusion (p. 204)
  Chapter VI. The "Others": "Racial Inferiors" and Ethnic Germans (p. 210)
    Courts and Law of the Occupied Territories (p. 214)
    Sexual Abuse by "Racial Inferiors" (p. 216)
    Sexual Abuse by Ethnic Germans (p. 224)
    Conclusion (p. 233)
  Chapter VII. Conclusion (p. 236)
  Bibliography (p. 247)
    Archives (p. 247)
    Secondary Sources (p. 248)

Wikipedia: German war crimes, War crimes of the Wehrmacht, War rape, World War II

Added: March 8, 2014 | Last updated: March 8, 2014