Added: February 6, 2016 – Last updated: September 2, 2017


Author: Jephias Andrew Dzimbanhete

Title: Sexuality in the War Zones During Zimbabwe's War of Liberation

Subtitle: The Case of the Zimbabwe African National Liberation Army

Journal: The Journal of Pan African Studies

Volume: 8

Issue: 8

Year: November 2015

Pages: 52-59

eISSN: 1942-6569 – Find a Library: Open Access Journal

Language: English

Keywords: Modern History: 20th Century | African History: Zimbabwean History | Types: Wartime Sexual Violence / Rhodesian Bush War



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Journal of Pan African Studies (Free Access)

Questia (Restricted Access)


Author: Jephias Andrew Dzimbanhete, Department of History, Archaelogy and Development Studies, Great Zimbabwe

Abstract: »Commentators of Zimbabwe's war of independence have made allusions about the sexuality of the Zimbabwe African National Liberation Army (ZANLA) forces as they prosecuted the war in Rhodesia. Among the intimations have been allegations that the liberation fighters raped teenage girls who worked with the liberation forces performing various duties in the furtherance of the cause of liberation. The guerrilla fighters are also fingered for having been responsible for impregnating women on a large scale. Ex-Rhodesian soldiers have documented in their liberation war literature that the ZANLA forces used teenage rural girls as their concubines. Most narratives of the Zimbabwean liberation war give the impression that sexual harassment of women by guerrilla fighters in the operational areas was commonplace and was rampant. Sexual misdemeanors are cited as frequent occurrences which featured as part and parcel of guerrilla violence and indiscipline. This paper does not deny that such happenings took place, but it also argues that these were sporadic rather than frequent, because the sexuality of ZANLA forces was controlled and guided by codes of conduct and regulations.« (Source: Journal of Pan African Studies)


  Abstract (p. 52)
  Zimbabwe African National Liberation Army War Documents (p. 54)
  Codes Regulated the Sexuality of ZANLA on the Frontline (p. 55)
  Cases of Contravention of Regulations on Sexuality (p. 55)
  Conclusion (p. 56)
  Endnotes (p. 57)
  References (p. 58)

Wikipedia: History of Africa: History of Zimbabwe | Sex and the law: Wartime sexual violence | War: Rhodesian Bush War