Conaway 2012 Violence

Title Information


Author: Matthew Bolyn Conaway

Title: When 'Boys Will Not Be Boys'

Subtitle: Variations of Wartime Sexual Violence by Armed Opposition Groups in Sri Lanka, Sierra Leone, and Nepal

Thesis: M.A. Thesis, Wright State University

Year: 2012

Pages: xi + 231pp.

Language: English

Keywords: 20th Century, 21st Century | Nepalese History, Sierra Leonean History, Sri Lankan History | Types: Wartime Rape / Nepalese Civil War, Sierra Leone Civil War, Sri Lankan Civil War



Full Text


Link: OhioLINK (Free Access)



Additional Information


Author: Academia.edu

Abstract: »Wartime sexual violence is often assumed to be inevitable during conflict yet empirical evidence indicates that sexual violence varies in type and frequency within and across conflicts as well as among armed groups. A solid understanding of what variable(s) and causal pathway(s) permit the variation of systematic sexual violence in intrastate conflict situations by specific groups has yet to be developed. What factors explain the variation of sexual violence by certain armed opposition groups during conflict situations? This comparative study employs process-tracing and the congruence method to consider the utility of hypotheses drawn from the work of Elisabeth J. Wood and Kathryn Farr using data from the Sri Lankan (1983-2009), Sierra Leonean (1991-2002), and Nepalese (1996-2005) civil wars. It finds that insurgent leadership prohibition of sexual violence against civilians and equitable intragroup gender dynamics are correlated with a lower frequency of sexual violence against civilian populations by insurgencies during civil wars. The author theorizes that when leadership prohibits sexual violence, enforces strong internal group discipline, and frames women‘s (equitable) participation as integral for achieving the broader ideological and strategic goals of the insurgency (i.e., nationalist, leftist, etc.), sexual violence against women and girls is less frequent during civil wars by armed opposition groups vis-à-vis government armed forces.« (Source: Thesis)

Contents:

  Abstract (p. iii)
  List of Acronyms (p. vi)
  List of Figures (p. viii)
  List of Tables (p. ix)
  Acknowledgements (p. x)
  1. Variations of Wartime Sexual Violence (p. 1)
    1.1. Introduction (p. 1)
    1.2 .The Research Questions (p. 3)
    1.3. Literature Review (p. 5)
      Militarized Masculinity as the Cause of Sexual Violence (p. 8)
      Sexual Violence as a Strategy of War (p. 13)
      Patterns and Variations of Wartime Sexual Violence (p. 19)
      Brief Analysis of the Literature (p. 26)
    1.4. Case Selection (p. 27)
    1.5. Variables and Operationalization (p. 28)
      Dependent Variable (p. 28)
      Independent Variables (p. 30)
    1.6. Research Design (p. 36)
      Hypotheses (p. 38)
      Ideology and Framing Processes (p. 39)
    1.7. Chapter Outline (p. 40)
  2. Wartime Sexual Violence in Sri Lanka and Sierra Leone (p. 42)
    2.1. History of the Sri Lankan and Sierra Leonean Conflicts (p. 42)
      The Historical Foundations of the Sri Lankan Civil War (p. 43)
      The Historical Foundations of the Sierra Leonean Civil War (p. 56)
    2.2. The Formation and Hegemony of the LTTE and RUF Insurgencies (p. 68)
      The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (p. 68)
      The Revolutionary United Front (p. 74)
    2.3. Government Armed Forces in the Civil Wars (p. 79)
      The Sri Lankan Armed Forces (p. 79)
      The Republic of Sierra Leone Armed Forces and Armed Forces Revolutionary Council (p. 84)
    2.4. Gender Dynamics of the LTTE and RUF (p. 88)
      Women in Sri Lanka and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (p. 89)
      Women in Sierra Leone and the Revolutionary United Front (p. 102)
    2.5. Variation of Wartime Sexual Violence among Armed Groups (p. 113)
      2.5.1 LTTE and SLA (1983-200) (p. 113)
        Sexual Violence Utilized by the SLA (p. 113)
        Repertoire of Violence Employed by the Tamil Tigers (p. 116)
        The Absence of Sexual Violence by the LTTE (p. 120)
      2.5.2. The RUF and AFRC (1991-2002) (p. 122)
        Repertoire of Violence Employed by the RSLAF and CDF (p. 123)
        The Use of Wartime Sexual Violence by the RUF and AFRC (p. 124)
    2.6. Explaining the Variation of Sexual Violence among the LTTE and RUF (p. 128)
      The LTTE's Limited Use of Wartime Sexual Violence (p. 129)
      The RUF's Widespread Use of Wartime Sexual Violence (p. 132)
    2.7. Conclusion (p. 127)
  3. Wartime Sexual Violence in Nepal (p. 138)
    3.1. The Historical Foundations of the Nepalese Civil War (p. 138)
    3.2. The Formation and Hegemony of the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) (p. 153)
    3.3. Government Armed Forces in the Civil Wars (p. 162)
    3.4. Gender Dynamics of the CPN(M) (p. 166)
    3.5. Variation of Wartime Sexual Violence among Armed Groups (p. 181)
      Sexual Violence by the RNA (p. 181)
      Repertoire of Violence by the CPN(M) (p. 185)
      The Infrequency of Sexual Violence by the Maoists (p. 188)
    3.6. Explaining the Variation of Sexual Violence by the CPN(M) (p. 190)
    3.7 Conclusion (p. 193)
  4. Conclusion: Explaining Variations of Wartime Sexual Violence (p. 195)
    4.1. Introduction (p. 195)
    4.2. The Congruence Method: Hypotheses Testing (p. 195)
    4.3. Bringing Intragroup Gender Dynamincs into Wartime Sexual Violence Theory (p. 205)
    4.4. Policy Implications (p. 208)
      Combatant Socialization and Leadership Prohibition (p. 208)
      Conviction of Charles Taylor by the Special Court for Sierra Leone (p. 212)
    4.5. Conclusion: Suggestions for Future Research (p. 213)
  Bibliography (p. 217)

Wikipedia: Wartime sexual violence: Nepalese Civil War, Sierra Leonean Civil War, Sri Lankan Civil War


Added: July 12, 2014 – Last updated: February 7, 2015