Added: January 25, 2014 – Last updated: March 4, 2017

TITLE INFORMATION


Author: Helen Mary Cockburn

Title: The Impact of Introducing an Affirmative Model of Consent and Changes to the Defence of Mistake in Tasmanian Rape Trials

Subtitle: -

Thesis: Ph.D. Thesis, University of Tasmania

Advisors: Kate Warner and Terese Henning

Year: June 2012

Pages: vii + 255pp.

OCLC Number: 857731036 – Find a Library: WorldCat

Language: English

Keywords: Modern Histoy: 20th Century, 21st Century | Oceanian History: Australian History | Prosecution: Trials



FULL TEXT


Link: Library Open Repository: Digital Repository of the University of Tasmania (Free Access)



ADDITIONAL INFORMATION


Abstract: »The successful prosecution of sexual offences is regularly frustrated because jurors, judges and legal counsel embrace prejudicial stereotypes about what constitutes consent to sexual intercourse. In 2004 the Tasmanian Parliament instituted reforms to the state’s Criminal Code that inserted a statutory definition of consent in s 2A and imposed additional constraints on the availability of the defence of mistaken belief in consent in s 14A. These changes were amongst the most progressive in the common law world. The reforms were designed to ensure that the issue of consent to sexual conduct would be evaluated according to standards of mutuality and reciprocity and that therefore, in accordance with s 2A(2)(a) of the Tasmanian Criminal Code, proof that the complainant did not communicate consent is sufficient to establish absence of consent. This thesis looks at the way that the amended provisions are being implemented by conducting a content analysis of trial transcripts of sexual offences cases heard in the Tasmanian Supreme Court in which the determination of the issue of absence of consent was critical to the case outcome. The research also includes interviews with judges of the Supreme Court of Tasmania and legal practitioners admitted to the Tasmanian bar. The treatment of the issue of consent to sexual conduct is examined to determine whether or not it is consistent with the intentions articulated by parliament and the reform advocates. The findings from this research provide evidence that the reforms are not being implemented as intended. There is evidence that judges and counsel continue to rely on a pre-reform notion of consent and indications that the prosecution tailor cases to their understanding of the jury’s preconceived views about rape, rape victims and consent to sexual intercourse. The thesis concludes that the general reluctance or inability to engage with the new concept of consent that the reforms have instituted must be addressed by providing education about the meaning and effect of the amended legislation if there is to be any hope of achieving positive attitudinal change within both the criminal justice system and the broader community.« (Source: Thesis)

Contents:

  Declarations (p. ii)
  Abstract (p. iii)
  Acknowledgments (p. iv)
  Chapter 1: Introduction (p. 1)
    1.1 Introduction (p. 1)
    1.2 Thesis Outline (p. 1)
    1.3 Research Rationale (p. 5)
      1.3.1 Key Objectives (p. 6)
      1.3.2 Methodology (p. 7)
    1.4 The Role of Consent in Sexual Offences (p. 7)
      1.4.1 Rape Myths and Consent (p. 9)
    1.5 The Problem of Consent (p. 11)
      1.5.1 Consent as an Indeterminate Concept (p. 11)
      1.5.2 Assumptions about Autonomy (p. 14)
    1.6 Attrition and Conviction Rates (p. 15)
    1.7 Legal Approaches to Determining the Issue of Absence of Consent (p. 17)
    1.8 History of the 2004 Reforms (p. 19)
      1.8.1 Previous Consent Provisions (p.19)
    1.9 Aims and Content of the Reforms (p. 22)
      1.9.1 Statutory Definition of Consent – Section 2A(1) (p. 24)
        1.9.1.1 Communicative Sexuality (p.25)
      1.9.2 Expanded Vitiating Circumstances – Section 2A(2) (p. 28)
      1.9.3 Mistaken Belief in Consent – Section 14A (p. 30)
    1.10 Changes to the Original Bill (p. 32)
    1.11 Efficacy of Legal Reform (p. 33)
    1.12 Summary (p. 35)
  Chapter 2: An Historical Account of Rape Myths (p. 37)
    2.1 Introduction (p. 37)
    2.2 The Basis for Criminalisation (p. 42)
    2.3 Female Subordination (p. 44)
      2.3.1 Arranged and Coerced Marriages (p. 47)
      2.3.2 False Allegations of Abduction as a Prelude to Marriage (p. 51)
      2.3.3 Prosecution of Appeals of Rape (p. 53)
    2.4 The Nature of Women (p. 57)
      2.4.1 The Ideal Complainant (p. 58)
      2.4.2 Biology in Conflict with Societal Expectations (p. 60)
    2.5 The Pre-Emincence of Chastity (p. 61)
      2.5.1 Adultery (p. 63)
      2.5.2 Constraints on Sexual Behaviour (p. 64)
    2.6 Stranger Rape (p. 66)
    2.7 Conclusion (p. 68)
  Chapter 3: National and International Comparisions (p. 69)
    3.1 Introduction (p. 69)
    3.2 Rape as Violence (p. 71)
      3.2.1 Michigan Model Rape Legislation (p. 71)
      3.2.2 NSW – Crimes (Sexual Assault) Amendment Act 1981 (p. 75)
      3.2.3 NSW – Crimes (Amendment) Act 1989 (p. 77)
    3.3 Statutory Definition of Consent (p. 79)
      3.3.1 Victoria – Crimes (Rape) Act (1991) (p. 79)
        3.3.1.1 Criticisms (p. 80)
        3.3.1.2 Further Amendments (p. 81)
      3.3.2 NSW – Crimes Amendment (Consent-Sexual Assault Offences) Act 2007 (p. 84)
        3.3.2.1 Automatic Negation of Consent (p. 85)
        3.3.2.2 Possible Negation of Consent (p. 86)
      3.3.3 United Kingdom – Sexual Offences Act 2003 (p. 88)
        3.3.3.1 Criticisms (p. 89)
          Definitional Problems (p. 90)
          Evidence of Non-Consent (p. 92)
          An Exhaustive List (p. 94)
          Structure of the Provisions (p. 95)
        3.3.3.2 Summary of the Sexual Offences Act 2003 (p. 96)
      3.3.4 Canada – Criminal Code (p. 96)
    3.4 The Mental Element and Mistaken Belief in Consent (p. 100)
      3.4.1 Victoria (p. 103)
      3.4.2 New South Wales (p. 104)
      3.4.3 United Kingdom (p. 106)
      3.4.4 Canada (p. 108)
    3.5 Conclusion (p. 111)
  Chapter 4: Research Design and Methodology (p. 114)
    4.1 Introduction (p. 114)
    4.2 Research Design (p. 115)
      4.2.1 Methodology (p. 115)
      4.2.2 Selection of the Research Data – Cases and Interviewees (p. 118)
      4.2.3 Research Questions (p. 120)
      4.2.4 The Research Software - NVivo (p. 121)
      4.2.5 Development of the Coding Scheme (p. 123)
    4.3 Analysis of the Transcripts (p. 124)
      4.3.1 The Prosecution Component (p. 125)
      4.3.2 The Defence Component (p. 126)
      4.3.3 The Judicial Component (p. 127)
    4.4 The Cases (p. 128)
      4.4.1 Brennan (p. 130)
      4.4.2 Horne (p. 131)
      4.4.3 Riley (p. 131)
      4.4.4 Allen (p. 132)
      4.4.5 Savage (p. 132)
      4.4.6 McCaffrey (p. 133)
    4.5 Conclusion (p. 134)
  Chapter 5: Case Study 1 (p. 135)
    5.1 Introduction (p. 135)
    5.2 Manifestation of Dissent (Brennan and Horne) (p. 136)
      5.2.1 Brennan (p. 137)
        5.2.1.1 Sufficient Resistance (p. 139)
        5.2.1.2 An Alternative Approach? (p. 141)
      5.2.2 Horne (p. 144)
    5.3 Conclusion (p. 146)
  Chapter 6: Case Study 2 (p. 148)
    6.1 Introduction (p. 148)
    6.2 Force of Fear of Force (Riley and Allen) (p. 148)
      6.2.1 Riley (p. 150)
        6.2.1.1 Relationship Evidence (p. 150)
        6.2.1.2 Construction of s 2A (p. 153)
        6.2.1.3 Positive Communication of Consent (p. 154)
        6.2.1.4 An Alternative Approach? (p. 158)
      6.2.2 Allen (p. 160)
        6.2.2.1 Relationship Evidence (p. 160)
        6.2.2.2 Sufficient Force (p. 162)
        6.2.2.3 Sexual History (p. 164)
        6.2.2.4 Witness Credibility (p. 166)
        6.2.2.5 An Alternative Approach? (p. 168)
    6.3 Conclusion (p. 169)
  Chapter 7: Case Study 3 (p. 171)
    7.1 Introduction (p. 171)
    7.2 No Communication of Consent (p. 171)
      7.2.1 Savage (p. 173)
        7.2.1.1 A Question of Capacity (p. 173)
        7.2.1.2 Drunken Consent (p. 176)
        7.2.1.3 An Alternative Approach? (p. 178)
      7.2.2 McCaffrey (p. 180)
        7.2.2.1 A Question of Capacity (p. 180)
        7.2.2.2 Drunken Consent (p. 181)
        7.2.2.3 Prior History (p. 183)
        7.2.2.4 An Alternative Approach? (p. 184)
    7.3 Conclusion (p. 185)
  Chapter 8: Success of the Reforms--Assessment, Recommendations and Conclusion (p. 187)
    8.1. Introduction (p. 187)
    8.2. Central Problems with the Reforms' Implementation (p. 188)
      8.2.1 Constructing the Case Theory (p. 191)
      8.2.2 Explaining the Law to the Jury (p. 195)
        8.2.2.1 Definition of Consent (p. 195)
        8.2.2.2 Mistaken Belief in Consent (p. 199)
    8.3 Additional Concerns (p. 204)
      8.3.1 Failure to Address Fluidity in the Notion of 'Consent' (p. 204)
      8.3.2 Difficulties with the Positive Consent Standard (p. 206)
      8.3.3 Opaque Jury Instructions (p. 209)
    8.4 Further Proposals for Improving the Implementation of the Reforms (p. 212)
      8.4.1 Criminal Justice Training (p. 214)
        8.4.1.1 Human Rights Implications (p. 219)
      8.4.2 Other Initiatives (p. 222)
        8.4.2.1 Placing an Evidentiary Onus on the Accused in Relation to Affirmative Consent? (p. 223)
        8.4.2.2 Expert Witnesses (p. 225)
        8.4.2.3 A Restorative Justice Approach (p. 228)
    8.5 Conclusion (p. 230)
  Bibliography (p. 233)
    Books (p. 233)
    Articles (p. 237)
    Law Reform Commission Reports (p. 245)
    Other Reports and Reviews (p. 245)
    Cases (p. 248)
    Legislation (p. 250)
      Australia (p. 250)
      Overseas Jurisdictions (p. 251)
    International Treaties (p. 251)
    Government Hansard (p. 252)
      Australia (p. 252)
      Overseas Jurisdictions (p. 252)
    Internet Materials (p. 252)
      Official Manuals (p. 252)
      Electronic Journals (p. 253)
      Electronic Articles and Reports (p. 253)
      Websites (p. 253)
    Miscellaneous (p. 253)
      Statistical Publications (p. 253)
      Newspapers (p. 254)
      PhD Theses (p. 254)
      Speeches (p. 254)
      Works of Literary Fiction (p. 254)

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