Added: March 5, 2016 – Last updated: March 5, 2016


Author: Camille Boutron

Title: Women at War, War on Women

Subtitle: Reconciliation and Patriarchy in Peru

In: Female Combatants in Conflict and Peace: Challenging Gender in Violence and Post-Conflict Reintegration

Edited by: Seema Shekhawar

Place: New York, NY

Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan

Year: 2015

Pages: 149-166

ISBN-13: 9781349560738 (print) – Find a Library: Wikipedia, WorldCat | ISBN-13: 9781137516565 (online) – Find a Library: Wikipedia, WorldCat

Language: English

Keywords: Modern History: 20th Century | American History: Peruvian History | Types: Wartime Rape / Internal Conflict in Peru; Victims: Reconciliation



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Author: Camille Boutron, Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios sobre Desarrollo, Universidad de los AndesResearchGate

Abstract: »Between 1980 and 2000 Peru was shaken by a violent armed conflict that resulted in the death of more than 69,000 people. Two left-wing revolutionary parties, the Communist Party of Peru — Shining Path (CPPSP) — and the Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement (TARM) in turn declared their military opposition to the Peruvian state at the beginning of the 1980s, while the country was moving towards democracy after 12 years of military rule. Led by Abimael Guzmán, a professor of philosophy at the University San Cristobal de Huamanga in the city of Ayacucho, CPPSP was the only left-wing party to refuse to be a part of the Constituent Assembly that was supposed to lead the country to democracy in 1979. TARM was quite different, as it appeared more as a “classic” guerrilla force, heir of the Cuban and Nicaraguan revolutions. Several leftist militants disappointed by the return of democracy constituted it in the early 1980s. In contrast to CPPSP, its members wore uniform in order to be recognized by the civilian population, and the targets of their armed operations were more predictable. TARM has often been considered as a secondary actor in the Peruvian armed conflict. Nevertheless, it remained an important movement. It showed that the armed struggles that arose in the country at the beginning of the 1980s were not simply the result of the influence of Maoist extremists but also a response to the state’s failure to promote social equality in a country historically marked by racial and social discrimination.« (Source: Springer Link)


  Women's participation in armed conflict: Untold stories (p. 150)
    Female militancy in revolutionary groups (p. 150)
    Women's contribution to the counter-subversive struggle (p. 153)
  Former female combatants in the reconciliation process (p. 154)
    Ghosts or monsters? An issue of visibility (p. 154)
    Facing punishment and social marginalization (p. 156)
  When peace becomes a gender-bases form of social control (p. 158)
    Linking political violence to gender-based violence (p. 158)
    Getting back patriarchal control over female combatants' bodies (p. 161)
  Conclusion (p. 163)
  Notes (p. 163)

Wikipedia: History of the Americas: History of Peru | Types of rape: Wartime sexual violence | War: Internal conflict in Peru