Added: June 4, 2016 – Last updated: June 4, 2016


Author: Katherine W. Bogen

Title: Rape and Sexual Violence

Subtitle: Questionable Inevitability and Moral Responsibility in Armed Conflict

Journal: Scholarly Undergraduate Research Journal at Clark

Volume: 2

Issue: -

Year: 2016

Pages: 46-58

Language: English

Keywords: Modern History: 20th Century, 21st Century | American History: Salvadorean History; Asian History: Sri Lankan History | Types: Wartime Rape / Salvadorean Civil War, Sri Lankan Civil War


Link: Clark Digital Commons: Online Depository of the Clark University (Free Access)


Abstract: »Wartime sexual violence is a critical human rights issue that usurps the autonomy of its victims as well as their physical and psychological safety. It occurs in both ethnic and non-ethnic wars, across geographic regions, against both men and women, and regardless of the “official” position of commanders, states, and armed groups on the use of rape as tactic of war. This problem is current, pervasive, and global in spite of the status of wartime sexual violence perpetration as a crime against humanity and the capacity of the international criminal court to indict offenders. Though some scholars have argued that wartime rape is inevitable given a global patriarchal culture and the violent context of war, this argument upholds a problematic view of opportunistic sexual violence as an inevitable, anticipated side-effect of violent conflict. In order to counteract such harmful claims, this research examines two cases in which armed militant groups engaged in civil wars have limited the use of rape as a tactic of war. The examination of the cases of Sri Lanka and El Salvador may challenge the narrative of wartime rape inevitability and reinforce a framework through which perpetrators may be held accountable for sexual and gender-based war crimes. Further, this examination engages with the current body of sexual violence literature exploring not only the use of rape in armed conflict, but also the unique cases in which wartime rape is rare.« (Source: Scholarly Undergraduate Research Journal at Clark)


  Introduction & Background (p. 46)
  Definitions (p. 47)
  Purpose Statement, Research Question & Preliminary Findings (p. 48)
  Case Study A - Sri Lanka (p. 50)
  Case Study B - El Salvador (p. 52)
  Challenges and Directions (p. 54)
  Conclusion and Recommendations (p. 55)
  Author Biography (p. 57)
  References (p. 58)
  Acknowledgements (p. 58)

Wikipedia: History of Asia: History of Sri Lanka; History of the Americas: History of El Salvador | Types of rape: Wartime sexual violence | War: Salvadoran Civil War, Sri Lankan Civil War / Alleged war crimes during the final stages of the Sri Lankan Civil War