Bjørnlund 2009 Violence

Title Information

Author: Matthias Bjørnlund

Title: 'A Fate Worse Than Dying'

Subtitle: Sexual Violence during the Armenian Genocide

In: Brutality and Desire: War and Sexuality in Europe’s Twentieth Century

Edited by: Dagmar Herzog

Place: Basingstoke

Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan

Year: 2009

Pages: 16-58

Series: Genders and Sexualities in History

ISBN-10: 0230542530 (hbk.) – Find a Library: Wikipedia, WorldCat

ISBN-13: 9780230542532 (hbk.) – Find a Library: Wikipedia, WorldCat | ISBN-13: 9780230285637 (pbk.) – Find a Library: Wikipedia, WorldCat | ISBN-13: 9780230234291 (ebk.) – Find a Library: Wikipedia, WorldCat

Language: English

Keywords: 20th Century | Armenian History, Turkish History | Types: Genocidal Rape / Armenian Genocide

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Additional Information

Author: Wikipedia

Abstract: »Drawing especially on a wealth of sources produced by missionaries (from Denmark, Germany, Norway, and other nations) who observed the violence and cared for survivors, Matthias Bjørnlund is able to provide the most comprehensive account to date of the pervasiveness of sexual violence in the Armenian genocide. His differentiated analysis of the divergent functions of sexual violence in the context of genocide also facilitates comparative understanding across time and space precisely because it is grounded in the particularities of the Armenian situation. 'Sexual violence was quite simply the norm on the death marches'. Yet at the same time, Bjørnlund stresses that the sexual slavery and mutilations were more an end in themselves rather that serving strategic means, serving more as occasions for dehumanizing and degrading the victims, asserting the power of the perpetrators and providing them with occasions for 'mutual demonstrations of masculinity'. Since most of the male Armenian population had already been murdered before the marches began, this was not an instance of using violence against females to send a message to the males of the enemy. In addition, Bjørnlund positions the Armenian case within the complex history of ethnireligious hatreds which contain biological racism, and in this way he can explain as well how some Armenian women were permitted to survive by becoming wives of Turkish Muslim men.« (Source: Dagmar Herzog. »Introduction: War and Sexuality in Europe's Twentieth Century.« Brutality and Desire: War and Sexuality in Europe’s Twentieth Century. Edited by Dagmar Herzog. Basingstoke 2009: 7)


  Introduction (p. 16)
  Gender and the Armenian genocide: An overview (p. 17)
  Sexual violence on the death marches (p. 24)
  Sexual violence – means or end? (p. 28)
  'Relocation': The end of the death marches (p. 32)
  Genocide by forced assimilation: Background and rationale (p. 33)
  Forced assimilation as a practical experience (p. 40)
  Concluding remarks (p. 41)
  Notes (p. 42)

Wikipedia: Genocidal rape: Armenian Genocide, Rape during the Armenian Genocide

Added: June 21, 2014 | Last updated: June 21, 2014