Added: February 8, 2014 – Last updated: June 20, 2015


Author: Stacy Banwell

Title: Rape and Sexual Violence in the Democratic Republic of Congo

Subtitle: A Case Study of Gender-Based Violence

Journal: Journal of Gender Studies

Volume: 23

Issue: 1

Year: 2014 (Received: January 18, 2012, Accepted: August 28, 2012, Published online: October 1, 2012)

Pages: 45-58

ISSN: 0958-9236 – Find a Library: WordCat | eISSN: 1465-3869 – Find a Library: WordCat

Language: English

Keywords: 20th Century, 21st Century | Congolese History | Types: Wartime Rape / Second Congo War


Link: ingentaconnect (Restricted Access)

Link: Taylor & Francis Online (Restricted Access)


Author: Stacy Banwell, School of Law, University of Greenwich

Abstract: »The just war tradition is based on two principles: jus ad bellum – just war-making, and jus in bello – just war-fighting. Jus in bello contains the non-combatant immunity principle. This ‘protects’ civilians during war, giving them ‘immunity’ from the violence of war-fighting. Women are, for the most part, non-combatants. Still, their experiences during war are far from ‘protected’. Following the widespread use of rape in the conflicts in Rwanda and the former Yugoslavia, the raping of women in combat and occupation zones is now considered a human rights violation and treated as a crime against humanity. Yet, despite developments in international law and policy-making on sexual violence in armed conflict, the systematic rape of girls and women during armed conflict continues. In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), this type of gender-based violence is being perpetrated and facilitated at a macro, meso, and micro level. This article will explore these levels through a feminist lens and will consider what is necessary to achieve just post bellum (just peace) in the DRC.« (Source: Journal of Gender Studies)


  Introduction (p. 45)
  The aim of this article (p. 46)
  Rape and sexual violence in the DRC (p. 47)
  The macro level: the global political economy of war (p. 49)
    International law (p. 50)
  The meso level: heterosexual masculinity and the military (p. 51)
    Women's position in the DRC (p. 51)
    Rape laws of the Congo (p. 52)
  The micro level: rape and masculinities (p. 53)
  Rape and sexual violence in the DRC: what needs to be done? (p. 54)
  A feminist revision of the non-combatant immunity principle (p. 55)
  Conclusion (p. 55)
  Acknowledgements (p. 56)
  Notes (p. 56)
  Notes on contributor (p. 57)
  References (p. 57)

Wikipedia: Sexual violence in the Democratic Republic of the Congo; Wartime sexual violence: Second Congo War