WHO DISCOVERED NEW JERSEY?
Excerpts From The Internet
Beginning in 8,500 B.C.
Although the peopling of the New World has been the object of a great number of archeologic, linguistic, and genetic studies, the few agreements achieved to date are their origin by migration from Asia (the Clovis period) during the last glaciation, 10,000 B.C. At this time New Jersey was about half covered in hundreds of feet of ice, which then began to retreat.
Note that sientists are still examining archaeological, biological, and linguistic evidence to determine who the first Americans were, when they arrived in the New World, and what happened subsequently., unbound from the Clovis limit, will shed more light on a changing picture of New World prehistory.
There is strong evidence that Alabama was permanetly occupied beginning in 9,000 B.C, so it is reasonable to assume New Jersey was first settled by early man a few hundred years later - approximately 8,500 B.C.
http://www.state.nj.us/dep/hpo/1identify/pg_10_AborigianalSettleNJMarshall.pdf (see page 15)
http://www.state.nj.us/dep/hpo/1identify/pg_52_ArchaicPeriodNJCraft_Mounier.pdf (describing the Archaic Period in New Jersey - 8,000 B.C. - 1,000 B.C.)
http://www.nj.gov/dep/hpo/1identify/pg_103_EarlyMiddleWdlndPeriodNJWilliams_Thomas.pdf (describing the Early/Middle Woodland Period in New Jersey: 1000 B.C. - A.D. 1000)
People were living on the land that would become New Jersey for at least 2,800 years. Evidence of their pottery making can be found in archaeological remains found in the area. You can see some of these items by visiting the Prehistorical Museum in Greenwich NJ . They have provided a nice .pdf file, that shows an overview of their displays.
The Lenni Lenape, also known as the Delaware Indians, lived throughout present-day New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, and Delaware. They belonged to the Algonquin nation and were known for their easy-going nature. They often played the part of mediator between disagreeing Algonquin tribes. The Lenni Lenape people were separated into three clans; the Minsi in the north, the Unami in the center, and the Unilachtigo in the south. The three clans are also known as the Wolf, Turkey, and Turtle clans. The tribes were nomadic and traveled with the seasons in order to make better use of the available natural resources, but they had permanent settlements where they returned in the winter. During the spring, they planted gardens of corn, beans, and squash. They also foraged for fruits and nuts and hunted game and fowl. In the summer they migrated to the coast to collect oysters and clams. They ate the meat and used the shells for jewelry. In the fall the Lenni Lenape would migrate back to their settlements to harvest their gardens and prepare for winter. http://www.kindredtrails.com/New-Jersey-History-1.html; see also http://www.native-languages.org/lenape.htm
The early Lenape were a loose confederation of independent communities. They lived mainly in the Delaware River Valley and land west that separated the Delaware and Susquehanna watersheds. The Delaware River was their domain; their council-fire was at Shakamaxon located in what is now Philadelphia. New Jersey was called "Scheyechbi" or long land water referring to the shape of the state. The Atlantic coast was called "Zeewanhacky" meaning place of sea fans or shells.
Lenni-Lenape trails in NJ
Flag of Lenape
Other New Jersey Tribes
Native American tribes in New Jersey
New Jersey Tribes
Powhatan Renape Nation, an American Indian Nation located at the Rankokus Indian Reservation in Westampton Township, Burlington County, New Jersey.
Jatibonicù Taino Tribal Band
of New Jersey
Pamapaugh Mountain Indians
Nanaticoke Lenni- Lennapes
American Indian Movement Support Group of New Jersey
Pytheas a Phoenician (Greek) explorer sail the Atlantic to a land called Thule beyond Britain. It is noteworthy they had the technology to achieve this voyage but hard proof is lacking.
St. Brendan, an Irish monk who was widely reputed as a skilled seafarer, is said to have undertaken an ambitious voyage. Brendan, along with a crew of fellow monks, sailed looking for Paradise, the Land of Promise of the Saints. After seven years exploring mysterious lands, he came upon what he believed to be the fabled paradise. It was an island so vast that he and his crew failed to reach the far shore after 40 days of walking. It contained a river that was too wide to be crossed. It was a wooded land, filled with lush fruits. He and his men filled their boats with gems they found there and returned home to tell of the news. ... Barry Fell, a Harvard marine biologist, discovered some petroglyphs -- writings carved into rock -- in West Virginia in 1983. Fell concluded that the writing was Ogam script, an Irish alphabet used between the sixth and eighth centuries. Even more startlingly, Fell found that the message in the rock described the Christian nativity. Clark, Josh. "Was an Irish monk the first European to reach America?." 15 November 2007. HowStuffWorks.com. http://history.howstuffworks.com/north-american-history/irish-monk-america.htm
See also The Anglo-Norman VOYAGE OF St.BRENDAN
Celtic Monks from Greenland are believed to have established a colony on Brion Island (Magdalen Island) in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and to have eventually settled on Cape Breton Island. Their settlement by Scandinavian tradition is called Huitraamannland. It is believed they are gradually absorbed into the Micmac or Mi'-Kmaq tradition.
The Celts miss New Jersey by about 1,000 miles.
August: Bjarni Herjolfsson is blown off course and is believed to have sighted Labrador, Canada. The Beothuk Peoples occupied Newfoundland but usually remained inland or on the west coast. This could account for a lack of sighting by Bjarni Herjolfsson, the Viking, who arrived this year. Later accounts would classify the Beothuk as being six feet tall and light complexioned. The account went on to say when they dressed in European cloths, they looked like Englishmen. This account is probably intended as an insult towards the Beothuk. The Beothuk and Dorset people known to be very friendly had established peaceful coexistence with other people of the Newfoundland region.
Norse colonization of Newfoundland and Labrador
Two medieval Icelandic chronicles, the Graenlendinga Saga ("The Greenlander's Saga") and Eirik's Saga comprise the primary written evidence for the Norse landfall , relating their sightings, explorations, and attempts at settlement in North America. The landing on the northern coast of North America in ca. AD 998-1002 was only the last phase of a westward expansion from Norway and Denmark across the north Atlantic, including the Orkney, Shetland, and Faroe Islands (AD 780-800), Iceland (870) and Greenland (985/6).
As described in the Graenlendinga Saga, Bjarni Herjolfsson was the first to sight the North American coast around 985 AD, but did not allow his crew to land. Better known is the Viking explorer Leif Eirikson (called Leif the Lucky), whose voyages to the North American coasts are recorded in both of the Vinland sagas. Thorfinn Karlsefni, an Icelandic trader, made a more permanent attempt to settle in Vinland. Due to the uncertainty caused by constant Indian attacks, however, this settlement was soon abandoned, the Vikings returning to Greenland. They must have spent at least three years in North America, as the saga relates that a son, Snorri, was born to Karlsefni and that he was three when the colonizers abandoned the Vinland site. Other documentary evidence for the Vinland settlement comes from Adam of Bremen, a German cleric writing some time shortly before 1076; and from the Icelandic Annals for AD 1121 and 1347.
In 1960, Norwegian archaeologists Helge Ingstad and his wife Anne Stine discovered a short-lived Viking settlement at Epaves Bay in Newfoundland. This site, called L'Anse aux Meadows (Meadow Cove), is thus far the only Viking settlement to be discovered in North America. Excavation has revealed the outlines of eight sod-walled structures, one with features suggesting it was a bath-house of a type known from the Norse occupation of Greenland. Iron nail fragments were found in the house and pieces of iron together with slag were found in a smithy
See also The Viking discovery of America: the excavation of a Norse settlement
The Vikings miss New Jersey by 1,250 miles.
Leo Weiner of Harvard University, in his book, Africa And The Discovery Of America (1920) wrote that Columbus was well aware of the Mandinka presence in the New World and that the West African Muslims had spread throughout the Caribbean, Central, South and North American territories, including Canada, where they were trading and intermarrying with the Iroquois and Algonquin Indians (Mroueh, 1996). This remains unproven.
Legend has it that Prince Madoc (Madog ap Llywelyn) sailed from Wales in 1170 and discovered America, Alabama, many years before Columbus. This page includes extracts from an article by Jayne Wanner about Madoc, the Mandan indians (the tribe some historians say could have been the descendants of the Welsh settlers), and information about the strange welsh style stone buildings unlike any other american indian structure found in the regions of the Mandan tribe, and indeed one structure is supposed to resemble Dolwyddelan Castle the birthplace of Madoc in North Wales.
While it is not conclusive, there is some evidence that the Welsh language was introduced into the Native tribes from some source (inferring introduction from a Welsh individual) at some time pre-1608 (Jamestown) and assuredly before 1669 (Rev. Jones).
Prince Madog misses New Jersey by 1,250 miles.
Paul Knutsson, a Norwegian, was sent to Greenland to restore the recognition of the Church of Rome in the region. He sailed into Hudson Strait, into Hudson Bay and James Bay, landing near the mouth of the Albany River and inland to Lake Nipigon. This was never confirmed.
Basque sailors are in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence. Unconfirmed.
The Scottish society claim that Henry Sinclair of the Orkney Islands of Norway sailed with 12 ships and 300 men, landing in Guysborough, Acadia (Nova Scotia) on June 12, 1398. They claim that navigator logs in Venice record this trip. They also claim that a Micmac or Mi'-Kmaq legend speaks of bearded visitors with red hair and green eyes who showed them how to fish with nets.
Henry Sinclair misses New Jersey by 1,000 miles.
Basque whalers from France and Spain are fishing off the coast of Labrador. Some suggest the word Labrador comes from the word labradores meaning workers or more literally slaves as Labrador was considered a source of slaves for the slave trade. It is noteworthy that Newfoundland was also called Terra del Laboratore meaning 'land of the slaves'.
The Vinland Map of this year clearly shows Newfoundland but other maps end with Greenland (ultimus terre terminus), the furthest land known.
Some believe the first Spanish Basques landed Terranova (Canada) this year. Others suggest it was earlier.
Joäo Corte Real discovered the “land of Codfish” that has been interpreted by some to mean Newfoundland. There is some substantiating evidence. He was Portuguese and the venture may have been a joint venture between the Danish and Portuguese royalty. This was never confirmed.
Johaunes Scolvus, a Danish explorer, claimed to have wintered in the Nunavut Territory (Hudson Bay). Nunavut means our land by the Inuit (Eskimo).
English merchants of Bristowe claim to have visited Beothuk Territory (Newfoundland).
Cristoforo Colombus sails
Privileges and Prerogatives Granted by Their Catholic Majesties to Christopher Columbus : 1492
. . . to discover and subdue some Islands and Continent in the ocean, and it is hoped that by God's assistance, some of the said Islands and Continent in the ocean will be discovered and conquered by your means and conduct, therefore it is but just and reasonable, that since you expose yourself to such danger to serve us, you should be rewarded for it. And we being willing to honour and favour You for the reasons aforesaid: Our will is, That you, Christopher Columbus, after discovering and conquering the said Islands and Continent in the said ocean, or any of them, shall be our Admiral of the said Islands and Continent you shall so discover and conquer . . . http://avalon.law.yale.edu/15th_century/colum.asp
The First Voyage (farthest north of the four voyages), 1492-1493. The Second Voyage, 1493-1496. The Third Voyage, 1498-1500. The Fourth Voyage, 1502-1504
Colombus misses New Jersey by about 1,150 miles.
In the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas Portugal and Spain divided the entire non-European world between themselves, with a line drawn through South America.
Treaty between Spain and Portugal concluded at Tordesillas; June 7, 1494
That, whereas a certain controversy exists between the said lords, their constituents, as to what lands, of all those discovered in the ocean sea up to the present day, the date of this treaty, pertain to each one of the said parts respectively; therefore, for the sake of peace and concord, and for the preservation of the relationship and love of the said King of Portugal for the said King and Queen of Castile, Aragon, etc., it being the pleasure of their Highnesses, they, their said representatives, acting in their name and by virtue of their powers herein described, covenanted and agreed that a boundary or straight line be determined and drawn north and south, from pole to pole, on the said ocean sea, from the Arctic to the Antarctic pole. This boundary or line shall be drawn straight, as aforesaid, at a distance of three hundred and seventy leagues west of the Cape Verde Islands, being calculated by degrees, or by any other manner as may be considered the best and readiest, provided the distance shall be no greater than abovesaid. And all lands, both islands and mainlands, found and discovered already, or to be found and discovered hereafter, by the said King of Portugal and by his vessels on this side of the said line and bound determined as above, toward the east, in either north or south latitude, on the eastern side of the said bound provided the said bound is not crossed, shall belong to, and remain in the possession of, and pertain forever to, the said King of Portugal and his successors. And all other lands, both islands and mainlands, found or to be found hereafter, discovered or to be discovered hereafter, which have been discovered or shall be discovered by the said King and Queen of Castile, Aragon, etc., and by their vessels, on the western side of the said bound, determined as above, after having passed the said bound toward the west, in either its north or south latitude, shall belong to, and remain in the possession of, and pertain forever to, the said King and Queen of Castile, Leon, etc., and to their successors. http://avalon.law.yale.edu/15th_century/mod001.asp
See also Compact between Spain and Portugal, signed by the Catholic Sovereigns at Madrid, May 7, 1495
these men shall consult upon, covenant concerning, and determine the manner of making the said divisional line of the said sea at the distance of the said three hundred and seventy leagues west of the said Cape Verde Islands, by means of a straight north and south line from the Arctic to the Antarctic pole, as is set forth in the said treaty. And whatever they determine upon unanimously, and whatever is concluded and marked out by them, shall be approved and confirmed through our letters-patent, by us and by the said king our brother.
Henry VII charges Zuan Caboto ("John Cabot") and sons (Ludovico, Sebastian, and Sancto) to claim land for England
The Letters Patents of King Henry the Seventh Granted unto Iohn Cabot and his Three Sonnes, Lewis, Sebastian and Sancius for the the Discouerie of New and Unknowen Lands. June 1497
the letter patents gave Caboto the "power to sail to all parts, regions and coasts of the eastern, western and northern sea, under our banners, flags and ensigns, with five ships or vessels . . . at their own proper costs and charges, to find, discover and investigate whatsoever islands, countries, regions or provinces of heathens and infidels, in whatsoever part of the world placed, which before this time were unknown to all Christians. . . . And that the before-mentioned John and his sons or their heirs and deputies may conquer, occupy and possess whatsoever such towns, castles, cities and islands by them thus discovered that they may be able to conquer, occupy and possess, as our vassals and governors lieutenants and deputies therein, acquiring for us the dominion, title and jurisdiction of the same towns, castles, cities, islands and mainlands discovered; in such a way nevertheless that of all the fruits, profits, enoluments, commodities, gains and revenues accruing from this voyage, the said John and sons and their heirs and deputies shall be bounden and under obligation for every their voyage, as often as they shall arrive at our port of Bristol, at which they are bound and holden only to arrive, all necessary charges and expenses incurred by them having been deducted, to pay to us, either in goods or money, the fifth part of the whole capital gained. . . .
June - Caboto’s landing spot is disputed as either being as far south as Cape Breton Island or as far north as Labrador. http://www.elizabethan-era.org.uk/john-cabot-ship.htm No one knows precisely where. Once an issue in diplomatic negotiations over title to a continent, Cabot's landfall has also been the subject, especially in centennial years, of competing attempts to appropriate the meaning of the event. Beginning with the historical context of Cabot's journey, Pope traces the various landfall theories which have placed his landing in locations from the Strait of Belle Isle to Cape Breton. The very uncertainty of our knowledge, he argues, has allowed nationalists in both Newfoundland and Canada to shape the debate about Cabot's itinerary and to stake claims to the landfall that amount to the invention of differing national traditions
But see John Cabot (Giovanni Caboto), the real Discoverer of the New World!! http://www.reformation.org/cabotia.html John andSebasian Cabot
http://www.archive.org/stream/johnsebastiancab00dioniala/johnsebastiancab00dioniala_djvu.txt (making the case for Cape Breton - although landfall would still have been on an island);
Alwyn Ruddock: 'John Cabot and the Discovery of America (Dr. Alwyn Ruddock was one of the best scholars to work on the North American discovery voyages of John and Sebastian Cabot (1496–1508).
For thirty-five years scholars in this field awaited the groundbreaking volume Ruddock was said to be preparing on this subject. Yet, when Dr. Ruddock died in December 2005, aged eighty-nine, she ordered the destruction of all her research. This article examines the research claims she made in her 1992 book proposal to the University of Exeter Press and in her later correspondence with U.E.P. Her findings are so extraordinary that they will, if proved correct, transform our entire conception of the scale, nature and importance of John Cabot's achievements); http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext/119408885/PDFSTART; The Cabot Project http://www.bristol.ac.uk/history/research/cabot.html
The royal banner was unfurled, and in solemn form Cabot took possession of the country in the name of King Henry VII. The soil being found fertile and the climate temperate, Cabot was convinced he had reached the north-eastern coast of Asia, whence came the silks and precious stones he had seen at Mecca,e intended on his next voyage to follow the coast southward as far as Cipangu or Japan, then placed near the equator. Cape North was named Cape Discovery. Caboto spends a month or so exploring and returns to England.
Most likely, Caboto landed in Newfoundland and therefore did not discover the mainland of North America during the first voyage.
Caboto misses New Jersey by about 1,250 miles.
On the 3rd of February 1498, fresh letters patent were issued, whereby Cabot was empowered to
And these [the said John is] to convey and bring them to the land and isles recently discovered by the said John in our name and by our order, paying for them and all of them as if we should in or for our own cause pay and none otherwise.
http://www.heritage.nf.ca/exploration/cabotpatent.html Henry VII himself also advanced considerable sums of money to various members of the expedition.
Caboto made his way as far south as the thirty-eighth parallel, when the absence of all signs of eastern civilization and the low state of his stores forced him to abandon all hope of reaching Cipangu on this voyage. Accordingly the ships were put about and a course set for England, where they arrived safely late in the autumn of 1498. Not long after his return John Cabot died. http://www.nndb.com/people/679/000095394
It is generally accepted that he sailed along the coast of the continent from the 56th to the 38th degree of north latitude, and claimed for his sovereign the vast region, which stretches from the Gulf of Mexico to the most northern regions. Such is the origin of the British title to the territory composing these United States. That title was founded on the right of discovery, a right, which was held among the European nations a just and sufficient foundation, on which to rest their respective claims to the American continent. Whatever controversies existed among them, (and they were numerous,) respecting the extent of their own acquisitions abroad, they appealed to this as the ultimate fact, by which their various and conflicting claims were to be adjusted.
See also Modern History Sourcebook: John Cabot (c.1450-1499): Voyage to North America, 1497 htttp://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1497 cabot-3docs.html ; Dispatch of Pedros de Ayala, the Spanish envoy in London, to King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella in Spain, dated London, 25 July, 1498 http://www.heritage.nf.ca/exploration/ayala.html
The map of Juan de la Cosa, specifically the series of five English standards drawn along the North American coastline. Given that the map was signed by de la Cosa and dated 1500, those five English flags can represent nothing other than the 1497 exploration of John Cabot. Determining the exact locations referenced by those flagstaffs is a matter of inference and conjecture, but the map is of great interest nonetheless, as it is believed that this portion of the coast was drawn based on John Cabot’s map, now lost, which was sent to King Ferdinand by Pedro de Ayala, the Spanish Ambassador to London. http://historical-travels.com/2010/01/02/map-of-juan-de-la-cosa
The Ayala letter and the Cosa map are probably the best evidence of the extent of Caboto’s southern explorations. Although “
Although the evidence is strong that Caboto sailed far south on his second voyage, his second patent does authorize him to visit or claim any new lands for England - he is authorized only to travel to the “land and isles recently discovered” and if he did land on the mainland of North America he was not authorized to “acquiring for us the dominion, title and jurisdiction” as he was with the first patent.
Caboto misses New Jersey by about 500-600 miles.
Note about Caboto from private correspondence: “The funny thing about Cabot is that he was quite well known / respected in British North America until the 1760s-70s. Indeed many of the historical accounts of the 17C - early 18C lauded Cabot as 'The Discoverer of North America'. What changed all this, of course, was the Revolution, which saw the wholesale adoption of Columbus as America's 'founder' hero. The advantages of Columbus were essentially: 1) He wasn't English / part of an English sponsored expedition. 2) The pre-existing 'myths' about Columbus already associated him with 'liberty' of thought / the rejection of Old World thinking. 3) The existing narratives cast him as a martyr who had been treated badly by an ungrateful European monarch. All this resonated with the American republicans, many of whom actually wanted to change the name of 'America' to 'Columbia'. And while that didn't happen, they did get for some important institutions / settlements etc. to be named after him - such as Columbia University and the District of Columbia. And that always helps cement a reputation.”
Unsubstantiated legend of ship wreck of Croatian sailors from Ragusa at Cape Hatteras who integrated with the Indians.
Ponce de León was given a royal contract which outlined his rights and authorities to search for the 'Islands of Bimini' also spelled Benimy (the Bahamas). The contract stated:
I grant to you the authority to discover and settle the [the island of Bemini], with the provision that it is none of those that has already been discovered."
In 1513 he set out from San German in Peutro Rico with three ships. After traveling for a few days, the fleet sighted land, which Ponce de León believed was another island. He named it as La Florida because of the beautiful flowers on its landscape. He explored the east and west coasts and went on searching for a chain of islands in the west and reached the Dry Tortugas.
Juan Ponce de León: the exploration of Florida and the search for the Fountain of Youth
Accordingly he is credited as the first European known to have visited present day United States in 1513.
Ponce de Leon misses New Jersey by about 1,100 miles.
Ponce de León secured a second grant, which gave him the power to make settlements on the Islands of Bimini and Florida. He was also knighted and given a personal coat of arms, which made him the first conquistador to receive these honors. http://www.buzzle.com/articles/timeline-of-juan-ponce-de-leon.html
The second grant gave him permission to colonize "the island of Florida which you discovered by our command."
The Portuguese, Spanish and French ships, numbering about 50, are fishing the Grand Banks off the New Found Lands.
Hernandez de Cordoba fought with the Florida Indians eventually dying from his wounds.
Baron de Lery of Portugal established a colony on Sable Island off the southern tip of Acadia ( Nova Scotia) and at Canso on the northern tip of Acadia ( Nova Scotia). They landed horses and cattle at both locations. Both settlements would eventually fail. Some suggest Baron de Lery is of France?
de Lery misses New Jersey by about 1,250 miles.
Alonzo Alvarez de Pineda journeyed to Florida, taking possession of 300 leagues of it for the king.
Joao Alvares Fagundes from Viana, Portugal explored the south coast of Newfoundland, the coast from Maine to Sable Island. The Gulf of St. Lawrence is noted on maps of this date. Some suggest he established a Portuguese colony on Cape Breton Island, but it failed. Upon his return, he was given a land grant of Acadia ( Nova Scotia) by the King.
Joao Alvarez Fagundes of Portugal sailed to Newfoundland, explored the Gulf of St. Lawrence, discovered St. Pierre, Miquelon and other Islands off the south coast of Newfoundland. Fagundes returned to Portugal and obtain a Royal patent to establish a colony.
Joao Alvarez Fagundes of Portugal at Ingonish, Cape Breton Island tried to establish a colony and established a station for curing fish. He also established a colony at St. Annes Bay this year. His competitors in the area challenged his claim by destroying his gear. Some say the Natives turned hostile likely being riled up by his competitors. He had enough and pulled up stakes and sailed to the Bay of Fundy and some think he might of reached the Penobscot River of Maine.
Fagundes misses New Jersey by about 1,000 miles.
Pedro de Quejo (Quexos) explored Chesapeake Bay.
Quejo misses New Jersey by about 100 miles.
Ponce de León set out with two ships which consisted of some 200 men, including priests, farmers and artisans, in order to colonise Florida. He landed on the west coast of Florida along with his fleet, but was met by Native American warriors. He suffered serious injuries in the conflict and died of his wounds in Havana, Cuba, in July, 1521. http://www.buzzle.com/articles/timeline-of-juan-ponce-de-leon.html
Ponce de Leon misses New Jersey by about 1,500 miles.
Verrazano, a Tuscan nobleman born in 1485, was commissioned in 1523 by a group of Italian bankers in Lyon, at the heart of France’s silk industry, to lead an expedition seeking such a westward passage to East Asia. With the backing of King Francis I, Verrazano obtained four ships, a crew, and supplies enough for a year abroad
Sailing for the French king, who wished to add to the glory of his reign the discovery of a water route to the Far East across the American continent, Verrazano sighted the future South Jersey in 1524. That spring, while exploring the coastline on a voyage northward from the West Indies, the Italian mariner passed the chain of narrow, sandy islands on which today stand the seashore resorts of the Garden State. He and the crew of his ship, La Dauphine, were the first Europeans confirmed to have traveled alongside these shores. Unhappily for the historian, Verrazano left no description of what he saw, nor is it likely that he landed on them.
April 17: Verrazano reached New York Bay. In a small boat he went to the Upper Bay and said the shores were crowded with people. He did not land but returned to his ship due to unfavorable winds. He sailed on to the Island of Rhodes (Rhode Island or Block Island). There were fires burning all along the shore likely a signal for trade but he couldn't land. At Narragansett Bay the Natives (Narragansetts) off Point Judith approached in canoes for trade. They went on to Casco Bay, Maine to trade with the Abenakis who were not as friendly as the Narragansetts. They then sailed on to Newfoundland.
It appears from this account that Verrazano landed north of the NY/NJ border. See footnote 1.
For a detailed account, please read The Written Record of the Voyage of 1524 of Giovanni da Verrazano as recorded in a letter to Francis I, King of France, July 8th, 1524 http://bc.barnard.columbia.edu/~lgordis/earlyAC/documents/verrazan.htm
The Letter says at the outset that the writer was sent by the king “to discover new lands,” and later that “my intention was . . . to reach Cathay”; but there is much evidence indicating that Verrazano had a keen mercantile as well as exploring interest in his voyages. Two manuscripts dated in March 1523, found in the Rouen archives, record inferentially, in connection with a voyage being planned, an agreement concerning the division of investment and profit among members of a Lyons syndicate which includes Verrazzano; the members are revealingly described as “tous marchans florentins.”
Map prepared by Verrazano’s brother
Partie de la carte du monde de Gerolamo da Verrazano, 1529 http://www.heritage.nf.ca/patrimoine/exploration/verrazzano.html
The Jesuit claim Verrazzano took possession of the 33rd degree north latitude up to the 47th degree for King Francis of France (this would include the Carolinas and north). Verrazzano named the area Archadia (and by the 1620's the name Acadia was in common use).
Verrazano misses New Jersey by 2 or 3 miles.
February: Estevan (Estevao) Gomez (Gomes), a Spanish slave trader, raided Acadia ( Nova Scotia) and Maine for slaves after exploring the Gulf of St. Lawrence and sighting Privce Edward Island.http://www.telusplanet.net/public/dgarneau/french1.htm
Pedro de Quejo (Quexos) and Francisco Gordillo on a slave trading expedition entered Chesapeake Bay on the Maryland/Virginia mainland.
Quejo and Gordillo misses New Jersey by 200 miles.
Portuguese Esteban Gomez sailing under the Spanish flag captured 58 New England Indians during his explorations and transported them to Spain (Sauer, 1971, p 69; Brasser, 1978, p 80).
Juan Vespucci sailed into the Cape Fear River to explore (Judah, 2008, p. 29).
1521 – 1526 - North Carolina – Ayllon sailed the Cape Fear River, settled 500-600 colonists from the Dominican Republic and their slaves near present day Cape Lookout in 1525-1526. He abandoned the project when only 150 were left alive and they relocated to Winyaw Bay, SC. The Cape Fear location is also said to be on Cape Fear in present day SC (Sauer, 1971, pp 72-76; Brasser, 1978, p 80) although it is widely believed to be the North Carolina location. A ship wrecked at this location during the colonization effort and the survivors rebuilt their boat while staying in the colony. (Judah, 2008, p. 32)[viii]
Vespucci and Aylln miss New Jersey by 500 miles.
Verrazzano arranged a second voyage with financial support from Jean Ango and Philippe de Chabot which departed from Dieppe with four ships in spring 1527. One ship was separated from the others in a gale near the Cape Verde islands, but Verrazzano reached the coast of Brazil with two ships and harvested a cargo of brazilwood before returning to Dieppe in September.
John Rut, an Englishman, departed London and sailed up the Labrador coast to Hawke Bay then south to the West Indies looking for a passage to Asia. When at St. John's Newfoundland, he noted 14 Portuguese and French fishing ships. An accompanying English ship, the Samson, were separated in a storm and is believed to have sailed northward from Newfoundland and is presumed lost. It is also known that Basque whalers had established a station at Red Bay, Labrador about this time. http://www.jogg.info/52/files/Appendix%20D.htm
In 1528, during his third voyage to North America, after exploring Florida, the Bahamas and the Lesser Antilles, Verrazzano anchored away from shore and rowed ashore, probably on the island of Guadeloupe. He was killed and eaten by the native Carib inhabitants. The fleet of two or three ships were anchored out of gunshot range and no one could respond in time.
Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca shipwrecked on the Texas coast. Panfilo de Narvaez landed on Florida’s west coast to explore and conquer the Indians there with 300 men.http://www.jogg.info/52/files/Appendix%20D.htm
Narvarez misses New Jersey by 1,100 miles.
The Ribeiro Map, a Spanish map, displayed a continuous coast from Labrador to Florida.http://www.telusplanet.net/public/dgarneau/french1.htm
Jacques Cartier (1491-1557), the pirate, first reported the Iles de Mingan this year. Surveys have uncovered Spanish coins and the remains of Basque habitations as well as native burial grounds, that all predate Cartier's visit. It is noteworthy that the Indians were considered savage before the arrival of Cartier. Cartier admitted that several French and Brittany fishing boats were in the area when he arrived and that they had been fishing the area for years. He admitted that these fishermen had named St. Pierre Island off the south coast of Newfoundland and not him. Most areas of Newfoundland, Labrador, Quebec, and Acadia coasts were well explored by these fishermen long before the arrival of Cartier.
Guillaume Gatz from Paimpol sailed the Marguerite Antoinette with 19 men to Terreneuve and likely into the St. Lawrence Gulf.
Cartier reached Montreal, described Trois Riviers and Kabec. He named the region Canada.http://www.telusplanet.net/public/dgarneau/french1.htm
Cartier and Gatz miss New Jersey by 350 miles.
Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca (1490-1557), the Great Spanish explorer who spent 1527-1537 exploring the interior of America, having lived among the Indians, reports the French pirates are attacking Spanish ships out of Havana. The Spanish have recently lost three ships. As they neared Spain, the French pirates again tried to take the Spanish ships but are scared off by the Spanish navy. He noted that the French ship employed slave Negroes as oarsmen, so the Spanish ships could not overtake them in the pursuit.
September: The King of France commissioned the following list of men for the New Lands (Lands of Cod): 120 mariners, 40 musketeers, 30 carpenters, 10 master masons, 4 blacksmiths, 2 goldsmiths and 6 priests.
The French, in 1687, claim that Jean Francois de la Rocque, Sieur de Roberval (1500-1560) took possession of the Bay of the North (Hudson Bay) for France this year. Jean Alfonse of Saintonge explored the coastline of Labrador. Roberval became Lieutenant General of Canada, despite being a Protestant convert. He commanded Jacques Cartier.
Map maker, Sebastian Munster, named Canada as Francisca and assumed the Bay of the North (Hudson Bay) extended down to the Carolinas based upon false information supplied by Verrazzano (1524). Basque fishermen worked the Strait of Belle Isle, hunting the boehead and right whales that migrated past Labrador and Newfoundland. A village at Red Bay, Labrador, containing nearly a thousand men, rendered the whales blubber into oil during the five month summer season. Most men, however, would winter back in Europe. The French and English would later consider this age-old universal concept of a different winter, and summer homes site a heathen practice.http://www.telusplanet.net/public/dgarneau/french2.htm
DeSoto pushes through (present day) Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Tennessee and the Appalachian Mountains to Mississippi with 500-600 men who were brutal to Indians, destroyed towns and tribes and took survivors as slaves.
DeSoto misses New Jersey by 500 miles.
Jean Francois de LeRocque de Roberval (1500-1560) was commissioned to establish a colony in New France and to construct churches and fortified towns. Jacques Cartier is employed as a guide but returned to France from Newfoundland dispite Roberval's orders. Roberval established his colony at Charlesbourg-Royal on Cape-Rouge, where Jacques Cartier had previously built a fort. The first New France colony was named France Roy and the river (St. Lawrence) was named France Prime. They ventured to Montreal and built a strong house on river Sinagua (Saguenay River). Basque fishermen from Pyreness had built drying racks for their cod catch at the mouth of the Saguenay River. The colony was abandoned in 1542. (It is noteworthy that Basque or Euskara predates the Celts and is unrelated to any other language in the world. Port aux Basques, Newfoundland speak of their presence as does Isles-aux-Basques that are islets where the Basques whalers put ashore to render blubber into oil for shipment back to Spain. The Basque word for god is Jinkoa, is a very ancient word with no known resembling word in the world).Angel de Villagane, governor of Spanish Florida ordered Antoinio Velazquez to sail north with provisions for the Spanish colony of Santa Elena on the South Carolina coast, he was blown off course and ended up in Chesapeake Bay off the coast of Maryland/Virginia.
Velazquez misses New Jersey by 40 miles.
Marguerite de La Rocque co-seigneuress of Pointpoint, a close relative of Sieur de Roberval (1500-1560), accompanied him on this years voyage to Canada. Shocked by Marguerite taking a lover, Roberval set her ashore of Ile des Demons in the Saint Lawrence River with her lover and a servant girl. The young man, the servant girl and Marguerite's child which was born on the island, died. Marguerite managed to survive and was rescued two years five month later by French fisherman. This would represent the first recorded Country Marriage and the birth of the first European child in New France (Canada).http://www.telusplanet.net/public/dgarneau/french2.htm
Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo discovered San Diego Bay, California
Tadoussac, Quebec, at the mouth of the Saguenay River on the St. Lawrence River, is established this year by the Basque. Tadoussac is an ancient Native trading center and was likely visited by many traders before the Basque made this a wintering trading and fish processing site.http://www.telusplanet.net/public/dgarneau/french2.htm
A Frenchman wrote the people of Norumbega (Penobscot River in Maine), are docile, friendly and peaceful, the land overflows with every kind of fruit, wholesome orange, almonds and many sweet smelling trees. Another writer said the people were tall and fair, spoke words that sounded like Latin, and worshiped the sun. http://www.telusplanet.net/public/dgarneau/french2.htm
April: Three Spanish ships, San Esteban, Espiritu Santo and Santa
Maria de Yciar, stuffed to the gunwales with passengers and New World treasures
departed Mexico. The were sailing from Veracruz, Santa Maria de Yeiar
Espiritu Santo, and San Esteban bound for Havana then Spain. A storm blew
they off course northward where they ran aground and were pounded to pieces near
Padre Island, Texas.
Jean Ribault, from Dieppe, with 150 Huguenot colonists, set up a pillar (stone column) at the mouth of the St. John River (below Jacksonville, Florida). He then established a colony at Port Royal, South Carolina. Some of the colonists returned to France in 1564. In 1565 the Spanish captured the French settlement and put the people to the sword. Ribault landed at Parris Island, South Carolina and built a small fort (Charlesfort) to defend it, leaving 27 men. He promised to return but is unable due to the infighting between the Catholics and Huguenots. At Fort Charles, a fire destroyed most of the provisions. The officer in charge hanged one of the men; the crew mutinied, built their own ship, and sailed home after some 11 months. The queen of France commanded Ribaut to bring back some of the natives. In obedience to her command, Ribaut attempted to detain two of the natives on board ship to carry them to France, but the savages managed to escape and swam to shore. Charles IX of France gave his permission to allow Huguenots to settle Florida.
Jacques le Moyne is in the Rene de Laudonniere party when they established a trading post at Parris Island, South Carolina named Fort Caroline. John Hawkins of Plymouth called at Fort Caroline and brought home a packet of tobacco.
Rene de Laudonniere led more Huguenots to Florida, building Fort Caroline at the mouth of the St. John's River. Pedro Menendez de Aviles, of Spain, sent a fleet to destroy the French colony. He attacked the Fort and massacred the French defenders including Jean Ribault who arrived to help the colonists. Some suggest the destruction of the French colony by the Spanish was in 1565.
The Spanish discovered the French Charlesfort on Parris Island, South Carolina and built their own fort, San Felipe, right on top of Charlesfort. They didn't want to acknowledge claim to their capital.http://www.telusplanet.net/public/dgarneau/french2.htm
David Ingram was part of John Hawkins's small fleet of ships that had a had a successful voyage in the Gulf of Mexico until they made a stop at the little port of San Juan de Ulua, just south of modern Vera Cruz, Mexico, where they were attacked by the Spqanish. After this battle, it became clear that some of the men did not wish to march into Spanish captivity. The group agreed to divide into two parties: one half would continue south to captivity and the other would strike north and take its chances on freedom. Two days into the northern march, this party was again attacked by Chichimeca and half the men had their resolve broken. This group, too, divided. Half retraced their steps to the south and about two dozen men, under the leadership of David Ingram, set off north on a very long walk.
The route followed by Ingram and his men is unknown, as is the fate of all but three. Ingram says in his 'Relation' that they remained behind in various cities and towns, marrying local women. Only Ingram, Richard Twide and Richard Browne were found on the coast of Nova Scotia. No trace was ever found - or sought - of the other men.
Ingram left a list of some of the towns and cities he passed through on his journey:
Gunda, a Towne a flight shoote in length
Ochala, a great Towne a mile long
Balma, a rich Citie, a mile and a halfe long
Bega, a Countrey , and Towne of that name, three quarters of a mile long...
Saguanah, a Towne almost a mile in length
Bariniah, a Citie a mile and a quarter long>...
Guinda, a small Towne and a River, both of that name.
Ingram also suggested that there were a great many other large cities and towns, that they were 'five or eight miles one from the other' and that there were a great many small villages between the larger urban centres.
About 11 months after Ingram's group separated from the rest of the Englishman on the western Gulf Coast, Ingram, Twide, and Browne approached a group of Frenchmen attempting to trade with the people of the coastal regions of what is now Nova Scotia. In return for help in negotiating with the locals, the French captain gave the three Englishmen passage back to Europe. In 1569, the three travellers arrived in England and promptly vanished into obscurity. Thirteen years later, after Twide and Browne had died, Ingram's story was brought to the attention of Queen Elizabeth's Secretary of State, Sir Francis Walsingham. Walsingham summoned Ingram to be interviewed concerning what he knew of the eastern parts of the New World. Ingram's answers to Walsingham's questions make up the text that Hakluyt published 1589. http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A1143488
Ingram was the first Englishman to give a detailed description of the North American wilderness.
See “The principal navigations, voyages, traffiques & discoveries of the English”
Based upon Ingram’s description and his likely route of Ingram, which would most likely have taken him west of the Appalachians.
Ingram missed New Jersey by about 100 miles.
1578 - Eliz I issues 'Letters Patent' to Sir Humphrey Gilbert for any unsettled North American lands Letters Patent to Sir Humfrey Gylberte June 11, 1578 How does this compare with the Cabot Patent from King Henry? This one says applies to lands "remote, heathen and barbarous lands, countreys and territories not actually possessed of any Christian prince or people . . . "
1584 - Eliz I issues charter to Sir Walter Raleigh Charter to Sir Walter Raleigh : 1584. Applies to "remote, heathen and barbarous lands, countries, and territories, not actually possessed of any Christian Prince, nor inhabited by Christian People . . . ."
1585 - Ralph Lane’s report indicates that a group of his men overwintered with the Chespians (a tribe in the Chesapeake Bay). http://www.jogg.info/52/files/Appendix%20D.htm.
Lane misses New Jersey by 20-50 miles.
1587 – Raleigh’s Lost Colony of 115 English left on Roanoke Island. http://www.jogg.info/52/files/Appendix%20D.htm
All the elements are there: plucky colonists who endured one bad break after another; neighboring Native Americans who were enmeshed in their own internecine power struggles; a backdrop that includes piracy and the Spanish Armada; governor John White's increasingly frantic efforts to return to Roanoke from England; and finally the abandoned settlement itself, with little remaining except fortifications and two haunting clues: the letters "CRO" and "CROATOAN" carved on a tree and gatepost. In fact, as James Horn writes in "A Kingdom Strange," the truth is a bit more pedestrian, though still of great interest. The colonists' fate has been known, or at least surmised, in general terms since Capt. John Smith of Jamestown (the first successful English colony) began looking for them in the early 1600s. After a promised resupply mission failed to materialize, the Roanoke colonists almost certainly scattered, leaving the island to take shelter with friendly tribes. They lived alongside the natives for some 20 years, until most were killed in attacks by the imperialist Powhatans. A handful apparently survived and were taken deeper into the interior; others intermarried with natives and gradually faded from both view and memory.
Raleigh misses New Jersey by 250 miles.
On December 31 he British East India Company is set up by British merchant adventurers and granted the Royal Charter of Queen Elizabeth I. Also known as Honourable East India Company (HEIC). Partners combined their personal stock, turning it into company stock to create the world's first commercial corporation. It shipped out gold and silver to Asia in return for spices, textiles and luxury goods. The East India Company expanded into a vast enterprise, conquering India with a total monopoly on trade and all the territorial powers of a government. At its height, it ruled over a fifth of the world's population with a private army of a quarter of a million.
The English monarchy granted the company a 15-year monopoly on trade to and from the East Indies and Africa. By 1611, shareholders in the East India Company were earning an almost 150% return on their investment. Subsequent stock offerings demonstrated just how lucrative the Company had become. Its first stock offering in 1613-1616 raised ₤418,000, and its first offering in 1617-1622 raised ₤1.6 million. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corporation
At the time, it was customary for a company to be set up only for the duration of a single voyage, and to be liquidated on the return of the fleet. Investment in these expeditions was a very high-risk venture, not only because of the usual dangers of piracy, disease and shipwreck, but also because the interplay of inelastic demand and relatively elastic supply of spices could make prices tumble at just the wrong moment, thereby ruining prospects of profitability. To manage such risk the forming of a cartel to control supply would seem logical. This first occurred to the English, who bundled their forces into a monopoly enterprise, the East India Company in 1600, thereby threatening their Dutch competitors with ruin
(Note : Finding the earliest joint-stock company is a matter of definition. Around 1250 in France at Toulouse, 96 shares of the Société des Moulins du Bazacle, or Bazacle Milling Company were traded at a value that depended on the profitability of the mills the society owned. TheSwedish company Stora has documented a stock transfer for 1/8 of the company (or more specifically, the mountain in which the copper resource was available) as early as 1288.) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joint-stock_company
Gosnold, lawyer, explorer, privateer, visits Martha’s Vineyard and explores Cape Cod area. http://www.jogg.info/52/files/Appendix%20D.htm
Gosnold misses New Jersey by 300 miles.
Johan van Oldenbarneveldt took the initiative of setting up the "United (sometimes referred to as the Dutch) East Indian Company, Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie or VOC. On 20 March 1602 the company acquired the Dutch monopoly on all trade in Asian waters from the Cape of Good Hope onwards. First stock company. The company was empowered to sign treaties in the name of the Republic, to wage war and administer conquered territories. http://entoen.nu/voc/en VOC used its a 21-year monopoly to carry out colonial activities in Asia. It was the first multinational corporation in the world and the first company to issue stock. It was also arguably the world's firstmegacorporation, possessing quasi-governmental powers, including the ability to wage war, imprison and execute convicts, negotiate treaties, coin money, and establish colonies. Statistically, the VOC eclipsed all of its rivals in the Asia trade. Between 1602 and 1796 the VOC sent almost a million Europeans to work in the Asia trade on 4,785 ships, and netted for their efforts more than 2.5 million tons of Asian trade goods. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dutch_East_India_Company
See the Charter. http://www.eurostudium.uniroma1.it/ricerche/didattica/strumenti_didattici/fonti/600/VOCengvers.pdf
The Amersterdam Stock Exchange was set up to trade its shares and bonds. See Law, Finance and the First Corporations http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1330459
1606 - On April 10, 1606, the first Virginia charter was granted by James I of England. It recognized two companies, the London company and the Plymouth company, named for the cities of their origin. These companies were granted rights of settlement on the North American coast from latitude 34 to 45 degrees. The London company lands were from 34 to 41 degrees, and the Plymouth company lands from 38 to 45 degrees. A buffer zone from 38 to 41 degrees was created between the two companies where either could settle. see First Charter of Virginia
The Plymouth Company (the Plymouth Adventurers, also called the Virginia Company of Plymouth or simply Virginia Bay Company) was an English joint stock company founded in 1606 by James I of England with the purpose of establishing settlements on the coast of North America. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plymouth_Company
The London Company (also called the Charter of the Virginia Company of London) was an Englishjoint stock company established by royal charter byJames I of England on April 10, 1606 with the purpose of establishing colonial settlements in North America. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/London_Company
Note that the buffer zone between the two companies is comprised of primarily present day New Jersey!! http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Wpdms_king_james_grants.png
The Plymouth/Bristo/Exeter Company's initial attempt at a colony at Sagadahoc in Maine in 1607 was unsuccessful (and no further attempt was made until the Pilgrims landed on top of 'Plymouth Rock' near Boston in 1620).
The Plymouth Company misses New Jersey by 300 miles.
1608 - The London company, subsequently called the Virginia company, established a successful colony at Jamestown in Virginia in 1607. John Smith and his companions from Jamestown were among the first European explorers to get near Pennsylvania in 1608, as Smith mapped the Chesapeake Bay and penetrated up the Susquehanna River at least as far as 'Smyths fales' located near Port Deposit, Maryland, about 7 miles from the present state border.
The London Company misses New Jersey by 7 miles.
1609 - The Delaware Bay was first sighted by an Englishman, Henry Hudson. Employed by a Dutch Trading Company, Hudson too was searching for a passage to the Orient when, aboard the Half Moon, he attempted to enter Delaware Bay on August 28, 1609. Left the next day. Id. He later sailed to the now named Hudson River - and hoped it would provide a passage west to the Pacific. But after 150 miles (240 km) - and reaching a location near where Albany sits today - he found the river had become too shallow to continue.
Henry Hudson the navigator : the original documents in which his career is recorded, collected, partly translated, and annotated (1860)
http://www.archive.org/details/henryhudsonnavig27ashe Almost everything we know about Hudson and his four voyages in four years comes from just one work: Hakluytus Posthumous or Purchas his Pilgrimes, by the Rev. Samuel Purchas, first published in 1625.
The primary record of the voyage - and the only surviving English record - is the journal of Robert Juet, who had sailed with Hudson previously as mate, and would again in 1610. He noted numerous fights with the natives, killing, drunkenness, looting and even a kidnapping. The crew was generally negative towards native Americans, and somewhat afraid of them, which may have influenced later relations between native groups and European settlers. It was hardly a "glorious" expedition in terms of future diplomacy. The real importance of this voyage was in the explorations and its influence would come later, when the Dutch settled around today's Manhattan Island and founded their New World colony. Hudson's third voyage was the first to record the European discovery of today's New York State. http://www.ianchadwick.com/hudson/hudson_03.htm
Facts, Timeline & History about the third voyage of Henry Hudson: Hudson signed a contract with the Dutch United East India Company. The contract was very specific as to what was required of Henry Hudson: "the above named Hudson shall, about the first of April, sail in order to search for a passage by the north, around the north side of Nova Zembla, and shall continue thus along that parallel until he shall be able to sail southward to the latitude of sixty degrees. He shall obtain as much knowledge of the lands as can be done without any considerable loss of time, and if it is possible return immediately in order to make a faithful report and relation of his voyage to the Directors, and to deliver over his journals, log-books, and charts, together with an account of everything whatsoever which shall happen to him during the voyage without keeping anything back." July 14: Some of the crew land in Maine off Penobscot Bay - they trade with some friendly natives and return to the Half Moon.
After sailing as far soouth as Cape Hatteras Hudson turned north and sailed along the New Jersey coast.
Sep. 1 - 39 and 3 minutes - just off of off the southern tip of NJ
Sep. 2 - The Half Moon is just east of the northern tip of Sandy Hook. see Employing “forensic navigation” based on a close reading of surviving voyage accounts, knowledge of historic navigation methods, and extensive cartographic research, the author has produced original maps that reconstruct the 1609 environment and illuminate as never before this landmark voyage, with fresh conclusions as to Hudson’s course and landfalls. http://web.mac.com/dwh5/Half_Moon/Maps.html They spot a fire -most likely in New Jersey. http://www.halfmoonreplica.org/Juets-journal.pdf
Sep. 3 The crew continued to sale north northwest, spotted three rivers and made landfall at 40 degrees 30 minutes. http://www.halfmoonreplica.org/Juets-journal.pdf It is unclear if this was Staten Island or Perth Amboy.
Sep. 4 - the sail farther up the river, fish and meet the first natives. http://www.halfmoonreplica.org/Juets-journal.pdf
Sep. 5 - the boat sails back into the bay south and makes landfall. This appears to have been New Jersey. The identity of the first person to set foot in New Jersey is unclear. From Juet''s Journal it seems clear it was not Henry Hudson.
His crew was limited to 16 men - English and Dutch. http://books.google.com/books?id=q-XC-e3LaHAC&lpg=PA147&dq=henry%20hudson's%20third%20voyage&pg=PA164#v=onepage&q=henry%20hudson's%20third%20voyage&f=false
Sep. 6 - Crewmen of the ship were attacked by the Native Americans when they departed the ship, and one man, John Coleman, was killed. He is reputed to be the first European to be felled by a Native American arrow. It is said that he was buried on the land, in the area that is today the intersection of Carr Avenue and Beachway. It is referred to as "Coleman's Point"
September 11: Henry Hudson sailed on and anchored off Manhattan in New York Bay (The natives were given liquor and they later named the island Mannhattanink, place of drukenness). See footnote 3. http://books.google.com/books?id=M0R0KS3eYSMC&lpg=PA13&dq=samuel%20argall%20great%20store&pg=PA11#v=onepage&q=samuel%20argall%20great%20store&f=false
Sailing under the Dutch flag, claimed the land for Holland. See also http://www.hudsonhappenings.com/article/20090324/QUAD01/80724021;
Henry Hudson: The documentary record. http://web.mac.com/dwh5/Half_Moon/Hudson_documents.html
After his return to England and wrote the Dutch United East India Company informing them of his voyage and requesting finance for another voyage. The Dutch United East India Company responded by ordering Henry Hudson to return to Amsterdam immediately. In England Henry Hudson was arrested for sailing under the Dutch Flag was forbidden to continue 'voyaging to the detriment of his country.' The Dutch United East India Company subsequently sent further ships and settlers to colonise the area surrounding the Hudson river that Henry had discovered.
Also in 1609, Argall, an English ship captain employed by the Virginia Company of London, he was the first to develop a shorter, more northerly route for sailing from England across the Atlantic Ocean to the Virginia Colony and its primary port and seat of government at Jamestown.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samuel_Argall Upon his arrival at Jamestown, Captain Argall found the colonist in dire straits. He resupplied the colonists with all the food he could spare, and returned to England at the end of the summer. The Company was officially known as "The Treasurer and Company of Adventures and Planters of the City of London for the First Colony in Virginia." It had 659 shareholders who paid $750 each at the time.
English mariner, Samuel Argall, successfully entered the bay, where he and the crew of the Discovery "found great store of people, which were very kind, and promised that the next day in the morning they would bring him great store of corn." Before the Indians could return, Argall and his vessel were forced out of the bay by the winds, but not before the captain christened it, Delaware Bay, in honor of his friend, the governor of Virginia colony, Sir Thomas West, Lord de la Warr. Argall’s "great store" of kind people, whose generosity was denied him by a contrary wind, were the Lenni-Lenape, "men of men," or Original People, frequently called the Delaware Indians. Id. http://www.njangler.com/bigbass.php (A few years later Argall kidnapped Pohcahontas in an attempt to earn a ransom from her father).
ALTHOUGH discovered by a navigator in the service of a Dutch company the territory adjacent
to the Hudson River was not formally claimed by Holland until after the lapse of several years.
In 1610 a few merchants of Amsterdam fitted out a ship with various sorts of merchandise and despatched it to the newly found lands in order to open trade with its natives.
in 1610, a ship from Monnikendam, skipper Symen Lambertsz Mau, perished in the Hudson River http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adriaen_Block
1613- During the next four years, on somewhat secretive missions, Adriaen Block explored and mapped the coast along Delaware, New Jersey, Long Island, and New England, naming it for the first time New Netherlands.
1614 - Mey as captain of a ship, had explored the Hudson River and had traded with the Indians, largely for furs, a valuable commodity in Holland. Mey also, in 1614, became associated with the New Netherland Company, a company which received an exclusive permit from the Dutch States General to undertake four voyages over a four year period, to explore the American territories between the 40th and 45th parallels.
The prospect of successful fur trade prompted the States General, the Governing body of the Dutch Republic, to issue a statement, on March 27, 1614, stipulating that the discoverers of new countries, harbors, and passages would be given an exclusive patent good for four voyages, to be undertaken within three years, to the territories discovered, if the applicant would submit a detailed report within 14 days after his return. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adriaen_Block
1616 - In 1616 Cornelius Hendrickson is believed to have entered Delaware Bay using the same skiff that Adrian Block had used in 1614-15 to explore New England. The entire account of his discoveries is very short: "He hath discovered for his aforesaid Masters and Directors certain lands, a bay and three rivers, situate between 38 and 40 degrees. And did there trade with the inhabitants; said trade consisting of Sables, Furs, Robes and other Skins. He hath found the said country full of trees, to-wit: oaks, hickory, and pines, which trees were in some places covered with vines. He hath seen in the said country bucks and does, turkeys and partridges. He hath found the climate of the said country very temperate, judging it to be as temperate as that of this country, Holland.
1620 - United Netherlands Company, Captain Cornelius Jacobsen Mey, in 1620, set southerly course along the coastline from Cape Cod to New York Bay, which he called Port Mey, and on to the mouth of the Delaware. Facing upriver, the captain named the cape to his left Cape Cornelius (now Cape Henlopen); the cape to starboard he called Cape Mey. Id.
1621 - Dutch West India Company formed Charter of the Dutch West India Company : 1621. In 1621 the Dutch West India Company (WIC) was chartered as a trading monopoly similar in organization to the Dutch East India Company. The WIC's area of operations extended from the west coast of Africa westward across the Atlantic and Pacific to the eastern-most reaches of the Indonesian archipelago. http://www.nnp.org/nnp/documents/wic.html The favorable and vivid accounts of the newly discovered land given by the explorers, especially that of Robert Juet, diverted the Dutch from a concern to find an easier access to the far-off wealth of China. The stated purpose of the Dutch West India Company, incorporated in 1621, was to carry on a peltry trade with the Indians. With this intent, Fort Nassau and neighboring New Amsterdam, on Manhattan Island, were begun. Dutch West India Company (Dutch: Geoctroyeerde Westindische Compagnie or GWIC;The company became instrumental in the Dutch colonization of the Americas. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dutch_West_India_Company
1623 - Although the WIC was founded in June of 1621 it took almost two years for it to raise enough capital to finance its first attempt to take possession of its holdings in North America. The initial plan was to distribute colonists among the remote trading posts on the three major river systems--the Connecticut, Hudson, and Delaware--in order to serve as agricultural support communities. Nut Island (now Governor's Island) off the tip of Manhattan was to serve as a point of assembly for transferring cargo from coastal-trading vessels to large ocean-going ships. But this changed - see High Island.
A successor company of the New Netherland Company, the company with which Mey was associated, apparently received permission to also explore the territories between the 38th and 40th parallels which included the Delaware Bay and lower Hudson River areas. Mey was captain of a ship, the “Blijde Boodschap”, which under his command explored and surveyed the Delaware Bay area in 1620, and carried out trade with the Indians, again largely for furs. Mey’s company was not the only company doing exploration and surveying in the area of the 38th and 39th parallels. There were competing Dutch companies. So the Dutch States General decided to step in, and in 1623 decided to give a monopoly for the jurisdiction of the area to the DWI. And it was the DWI which sponsored the first shipload of immigrants to New Netherland (New York City) in 1624.
http://www.nnp.org/nni/Publications/Dutch-American/mey.html See also EW NETHERLAND AND ITS DIRECTORS
1624 - Walloons fled religious persecution in Belgium, and built the first recorded European settlement in New Jersey, ca. 1624, establishing a Burlington Island trading post to barter with the indigenous Lenape people. In turns occupied by Dutch, Swedes and Finns, it was seized by the English in 1664. http://www.burlingtonisland.com/history.html
1625 - West India Co send Willem Verhulst as "provisional governor" on High Island. In 1625 Willem Verhulst arrived as director of New Netherland with instructions to strengthen the satellite trading posts and their related settlements, but he was ordered to strengthen the post on High Island the most and to make it the center of the colony.(2)It is unclear why the directors were drawn to this island in the Delaware River (present-day Burlington Island, near Burlington, NJ). http://www.nnp.org/nnp/documents/wic.html This was determined to be the location of the center of New Netherland.
1626 - Several years afterward (variously dated between 1623 and 1626), the proud Dutchman (Mey, Minuit or Verhulst??) ascended the Delaware to the mouth of Timber Creek, where he set twenty-four persons ashore to establish a trading post. They constructed a stockade, Fort Nassau, which housed the first known white settlement in the future South Jersey. Id. Spring 1626, families from the Connecticut River and High Island were withdrawn. Instead of retaining a presence at the post on High Island, it was moved to a new location on the eastern shore of the Delaware River (present-day Gloucester, NJ). The new trading post was christened Fort Nassau. http://www.nnp.org/nnp/documents/wic.html see also http://www.nnp.org/nnp/documents/wic.html
1631 - Swanendael settlement (present Lewes). http://westjersey.org/wj_chron.htm
1632 - Swanendael massacre by natives. http://westjersey.org/wj_chron.htm
1632 - For eight years after Fort Nassau was built, no ship of record called at the lonesome outpost. In 1632, when David Peterson DeVries sailed upriver to the fort, he found it occupied only by Indians. Evidently, the white traders had been ordered to New Amsterdam in or about 1626, when Peter Minuit was concentrating the Dutch population in America on Manhattan Island. Id.
[1632 - In June Caecilius Calvert, Lord Baltimore receives MD Charter Cecilius Calvert received a charter from Charles I of England for the new colony of Maryland, named for the Queen Consort Henrietta Maria, shortly after the death of his father, the 1st Baron Baltimore, who had long pursued a colony in the mid-Atlantic to serve as a refuge for English Catholics. The original grant would have included the western shore of the Chesapeake Bay as far south as the Potomac River and the entirety of the eastern shore.[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cecilius_Calvert,_2nd_Baron_Baltimore ??????]
1634 - Charles I granted a tract of land extending from Long Island to Cape May, a region to be called New Albion, to Sir Edmund Plowden in 1634. England claimed the right to this land by virtue of John Cabot’s discoveries in 1497. Within Plowden’s tract, at the mouth of Pennsauken Creek, fifteen English traders had settled and erected a fort, called Eriwoneck, before the Swedish arrival. (Some historians believe that Eriwoneck was, in fact, Fort Nassau, near Timber Creek, which stood temporarily unoccupied.) The New Albion charter was, next to the Maryland Charter, the most powerful bestowel of authority in British North America. Sir Edwin Plowden and the New Albion Charter http://www.jstor.org/pss/20089179 For a map of the lands granted in the New Albion Charter, see http://www.ramtops.co.uk/charter.html
1634 - Thomas Yong vainly notifies Dutch in Delaware River of New Albion; Yong's party removed by Dutch.
xcerpts from an article on Plowden's New Albion charter
Sir Edmund Plowden and the New Albion Charter, 1632-1785 by Edward C. Carter, 2nd and Clifford Lewis, 3rd
1636 - Fort Nassau, reestablished as a permanent garrison in 1636, was the visible evidence of Dutch occupation.
1637 - Peter Minuit, the famed purchaser of Manhattan Island and Director General of New Netherland, was removed from his post in 1632 because of a dispute with the Dutch West India Company. He offered his services, along with his extensive knowledge of the New World, to Sweden in a letter to the chancellor, in which he proposed that, not just trading posts, but a permanent colony be founded. Thereupon, a corporation by the name of the New Sweden Company was chartered, in 1637. Only twenty-six people, a number of them Dutch, sailed for the intended New Sweden in early November, 1637. Id. Great book on the subject (downloaded): The Swedes in America, 1638-1900 (1914) http://www.archive.org/details/swedesinamerica101johnuoft
1638 - Peter Minuit and his company reached the Delaware in March, 1638. After purchasing two strips of land on the west bank from the Indians, the Swedish settlers chose the site for a fort - Wilmington Delaware. Minuit heads back to Sweden but is lost at sea. Id.
1641 - Peter Hollander Ridder, arrived in April, 1640, bringing with him some of the necessaries for colonization. Swedish settlement in the future South Jersey was officially opened when, in the spring of 1641, the governor purchased from the Indians a strip of land extending along the east bank of the Delaware River from Raccoon Creek to Cape May. Id.
1642 - Settlement was first attempted under the command of Plowden in 1642, however it ended in an attempted mutiny. After which, Plowden managed New Albion from the Colony and Dominion of Virginia, selling rights to adventurers and speculators. see also Some Extracts Relating to Sir Edmund Plowden and Others from the Lost Minutes of the Virginia Council and General Court, 1642-1645 and Some Note on Sir Edmund Plowden's Attempt to Settle His Province of New Albion by Clifford Lewis, 3rd. Reprinted with permission, from William and Mary Historical Quarterly, January, 1940, 19 pages. Charles Varlo The Grant of King Charles the First, to Sir Edmund Plowden, Earl Palatine of Albion, of the Province of New Albion, in America, June 21, A.D., 1634 (1785) (Collection of the New York Public Library). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_Plowden_(colonial_governor)
1642 - The English acquired tracts from the Indians nearly identical with Ridder’s, including the banks of Varkens Kill (Salem Creek), where a band of New Haven Puritans settled sometime before 1642. Disturbed at this English intrusion, the Swedes and the Dutch put aside their rivalry long enough to lay plans for a joint attack upon their common enemy (lenape??). Id. Varkens Kill were denounced as lawbreakers by their own mother country because they had settled without leave on Plowden’s lands. The former New Haven people appealed to "New Sweden" and the Dutch for protection, acceding gladly to the authority of either. Apparently with no intent to deprecate the manifest accomplishments of Ridder, the crown decided in 1642 to replace the Hollander with a man of Swedish citizenship. His successor was Johan Printz, New Sweden’s third and ablest governor.
1643 - Important to South Jersey’s history was Printz’ decision to erect a fort on the east bank of the Delaware, on a promontory a few miles below the mouth of Varkens Kill. Built during the summer and fall of 1643, it was named Fort Elfsborg. Within a short time, Elfsborg became the chief Swedish stronghold on the river. Dutch ships proceeding upstream to Fort Nassau were forced, when passing the Swedish bastion, to strike their colors, sometimes even to anchor beneath it.
The worst event in relations was the slaughter at Pavonia on February 25, 1643. The director-general of New Netherlands ordered "an assault on a large group of Indians encamped at Pavonia, to wipe their chops and drive away and destroy the savages." at the end he added "... spare as much as it is possible their wives and children."
The soldiers forgot to spare the women & children. It was a horrible massacre. Eleven tribes of the Iroquois nation banded together in retaliation. Retaliation took place from the Raritan River to the Connecticut River. A truce was finally secured in 1645.
1644 - Within a year of his arrival, Printz had made the Swedes the undisputed master of the Delaware, although the population of New Sweden, in 1644, was as yet only 121, Printz repeatedly begged Sweden and the New Sweden Company for additional people, especially soldiers.
1649 - New Albion was the name given to an area of modern-day New Jersey, Pennsylvania and Maryland in the United States where colonization was unsuccessfully attempted under Sir Edmund Plowden under the authority of a charter granted by Charles I in 1634. Settlement was first attempted under the command of Plowden in 1642, however it ended in an attempted mutiny. After which, Plowden managed New Albion from the Colony and Dominion of Virginia, selling rights to adventurers and speculators, until he returned to England in 1649. Despite other attempts to return to his colony, Plowden died a pauper and a large area of his claim later given by the Duke of York to John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton and Sir George Carteret becoming New Jersey.
1653 - Peter Stuyvesant appeared as the director of New Netherland Company. The first serious threat came in May, 1653, when an armed ship from the colony on Manhattan Island sailed upstream, past Fort Elfsborg, to an anchorage below Fort Christina and closed the river. The Dutch ship withdrew when it was hastily confronted by a sloop, armed and manned, sent out by Printz.
1653 - The governor of "New Netherland" both reinforced Fort Nassau with an additional contingent of soldiers, who marched overland from New Amsterdam, and constructed a new fort on the west bank of the Delaware below Fort Christina (Delaware). Printz withdrew the garrison from Elfsborg, thus bringing an end to the Swedish military occupation of the east bank. Still no assistance was forthcoming from Sweden. Printz relinquished his command to his son-in-law, Johann Rising,and departed the colony for Europe in October, 1653.
1655 - Peter Stuyvesant dealt the final blow to New Sweden in late summer, 1655. With a fleet of seven vessels, two of them battleships, and an army of more than 300 troops, the Dutch reached Fort Christina and surrounded it. Rising surrendered the fort, with all of "New Sweden", including the eastern part, to Stuyvesant. Those Swedes who remained at Fort Christina swore their allegiance to the Dutch and turned to rebuilding their despoiled property. Others crossed the Delaware to the east begin anew with the building of houses and the planting of farms. At the coming of Dutch rule, the center of Swedish colonization along the Delaware moved to the east side. With this shift, the documented history of the Swedes and Finns (who, from the beginning, were a part of the Swedish migration to America) in South Jersey began, although no land titles were recorded until later.
29 May 1660 – King Charles II restored to the throne in England; resolves to bring the New Netherland colony into the dominion of the British crown.
1660 - Bergen, founded in 1660, was New Jersey's first permanent European settlement.
1663 (-1673) - Numerous Swedish families settled at the mouths of Raccoon and Pennsauken Creeks, and others had moved to the interior along their banks. Finnish settlers, and shortly thereafter Swedes, had located upward from the mouth along Varkens Kill.
August – Four British frigates arrive at New Amsterdam; the Dutch surrender. Col. Richard Nicolls is established as governor of the Duke’s territories. New Amsterdam is renamed New York; New Jersey is called Albania by the local English.
Four years after the Stuart Restoration. In that year, Charles II awarded to his brother James, the Duke of York, all the lands lying between the Connecticut and Delaware Rivers, to be apportioned and governed as he chose
The duke, in turn, on June 23 gave to two court favorites, Sir George Carteret and John Lord Berkeley, the territory lying between the Hudson and Delaware Rivers, decreeing that the "said Tract of Land hereafter is to be called by the name or names of New Caesarea or New Jersey." The naming was an expression of gratitude to Carteret, the man who governed the Isle of Jersey and defended it for the crown during the English Civil War.
The Duke of York’s Release to John Lord Berkeley, and Sir George Carteret, 24th of June, 1664
The Concessions and Agreement of the Lords Proprietors-1664
December – Gov. Nicolls grants patent for settlement on Achter Koll (Newark Bay), subsequently called Elizabeth-Town, which had been purchased from the Indians on 28 October by John Ogden, Luke Watson and others.
Sir George Carteret granted a form of government in what was known as the "Concessions," which granted religious liberty to Englishmen in the new colony, and a government to be carried on by a governor, council, and an assembly of twelve to be chosen by the people, and no taxes were to be laid without the consent of the assembly. A farm, free for five years, was offered to any one "having a good musket... and six months' provisions,"1 who should embark with the governor, or meet him on his arrival; while those who came later were to pay a half-penny an acre quitrent.
April – Gov. Nicolls grants patent for Navesink/Monmouth tract (Middletown and Shrewsbury settlements).
August – Capt. Philip Carteret, cousin of Sir George, arrives as governor of the new colony. Elizabeth-Town is named in honor of Lady Elizabeth Carteret, wife of Sir George.
November – Settlers at Bergen take oath of allegiance to the king and the proprietors.
February – Lot owners in Elizabeth-Town take oath of allegiance.
May – Southern half of Elizabeth-Town patent sold to settlers from Massachusetts; becomes Woodbridge. Portion of Woodbridge patent sold to settlers from New Hampshire; becomes Piscataway. The two townships are set aside by Gov. Carteret on 21 May.
July – Newark tract purchased by Robert Treat and others. Settlers had landed 17 May 1666.
The first assembly met in 1668, and the severity of the code of laws adopted plainly indicated the Puritan domination of the colony. After a session of but five days it adjourned, and met no more for seven years.
February - Woodbridge settlers take oath of allegiance. Township chartered 1 June 1669.
September – Bergen Township chartered by Gov. Carteret.
The first quitrents fell due in 1670; but many of the settlers refused to pay rent, claiming to have received their lands from the Indians, the real owners, or basing their right to titles confirmed by Governor Nicolls of New York. The people rose in rebellion, elected an illegal assembly, and called James Carteret, illegitimate son of the proprietor, to be their governor. But Sir George did not sustain his son, and the rebellious government fell to the ground. The settlers, however, quietly tilled their farms and gave little heed to matters of government.
The Hudson Bay Company was incorporated by British royal charter in 1670 as The Governor and Company of Adventurers of England trading into Hudson's Bay and functioned as the de factogovernment in parts of North America beforeEuropean states and later the United States laid claim to those territories. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hudson%27s_Bay_Company
An Explanation of The Concessions1672
August 1673 – Dutch recapture former New Netherland area; begin to set up government at Achter Koll (New Jersey).
Not even the reconquest of New York (which included New Jersey) by the Dutch, in 1673, cause any serious disturbance of the New Jersey farmers.
The constant commotion between Carteret and his colony discourage Lord Berkeley, and he sold his interest in the province to two English Quakers, John Fenwick and Edward Byllynge. The latter soon became a bankrupt, and his share passed into the hands of trustees, the most prominent of whom was William Penn--and thus we are introduced to the most famous of American colony builders.
1673 - The first legal residence of a Swede in New Jersey was established in 1673.
In a transaction of March 18, 1673 with Berkeley to John Fenwick, a member of the Society of Friends (commonly called Quakers), for the price of 1000 pounds. Fenwick made the purchase as the agent of another Quaker, Edward Byllynge. Because Byllynge was in financial trouble at the time, he could not consummate the deal on his own behalf without risking devastation by his creditors. Eventually, his affairs became so involved that three Quakers of substance and ability, among them William Penn, were appointed trustees of his estate until he could be extricated from his financial woes.
February – Westminster Treaty returns Dutch-held New York and New Jersey to the English.
March – John, Lord Berkeley, sells his joint but as yet undivided interest in New Jersey to John Fenwick in trust for Edward Byllynge.
June – King Charles II makes confirming grant of New Jersey to brother James, Duke of York, reserving the right of customs and duties.
July – Edmund Andros is commissioned governor of New York by Duke James.
July – Duke of York issues patent to Sir George Carteret for East Jersey, being the territory lying north of a line connecting Barnegat Bay on the Atlantic Ocean with Pennsauken Creek on the Delaware River. http://www.njarchives.org/links/pdf/proprietors.pdf see Grant to the Lords Proprietors, 29th July, 1674. http://www.westjerseyhistory.org/docs/wjdocs1/index.shtml
1675 - Second assembly
February – Tripartite (three-party) deed signed, in which William Penn, Gawen Lawrie and Nicholas Lucas become trustees of Edward Byllynge’s interest in western New Jersey except for one tenth granted to John Fenwick.
November – John Fenwick founds settlement at Salem in his tenth of western Jersey.
November – Four counties are designated (without names) in East Jersey based on settlements at Bergen; Elizabeth-Town and Newark; Woodbridge and Piscataway; and Middletown and Shrewsbury.
July – Quintite or quintipartite (five-party) deed is signed between Carteret and the trustees of western New Jersey establishing boundary line projected from Little Egg Harbor to a point 41º 40' latitude on the upper Delaware.
East Jersey, which was retained by Carteret, and West Jersey, which now became the property of the Quakers. The line between them was drawn directly from Little Egg Harbor to the Delaware Water Gap. Two wholly separate governments were now set up, and they were as different as white from black. The stern New England Puritans had settled in East Jersey in sufficient numbers to give coloring to the laws, and in these laws (enacted by the first assembly before the division) we find enumerated thirteen crimes for which the penalty was death. In West Jersey the government was exceedingly mild. A code of laws with the name of Penn at the top gave all power to the people, and made no mention of capital punishment. This was the first example of Quaker legislation in America.
http://www.usgennet.org/usa/topic/colonial/book/chap7_3.html (When Edmund Andros was governor of New York, in the later seventies, he claimed authority over the Jerseys also, as the property of the Duke of York. He arrested and imprisoned Governor Philip Carteret of East Jersey, but the courts decided against Andros, and the Jerseys continued their own separate existence). http://www.usgennet.org/usa/topic/colonial/book/chap7_3.html
The Quintipartite Deed and the year the first 'constitution' was dated. The first of these matters was disposed of by the Quintipartite Deed of July 1, 1676, by which Carteret, Byllynge, and the three trustees agreed that the boundary line should run north by west from the mouth of the Little Egg Harbor River (the Mullica) to the uppermost tip of the province. Berkeley’s former holdings were called West New Jersey.
Quintipartite Deed : July 1st, 1676
The Fundamental Laws, of West New Jersey, — 1676
March – West Jersey’s Concessions and Agreements, drafted in 1676 by Edward Byllynge and signed by the proprietors and inhabitants; sets forth a framework of government and fundamental laws of the colony.
August – The ship Kent arrives at Burlington in West Jersey; settlement of “London” and “Yorkshire” tenths follows. This was the first important settlement in West Jersey was made in 1677, when two hundred and thirty people sailed up the Delaware and founded Burlington, and within two years several hundred more had made their homes in the vicinity.
September-October – Large tracts of lands in West Jersey are purchased from the Indians.
The first white man to settle in what is now the city of Passaic was Hartman Michielse, who, by deed, dated April 4, 1678, purchased from the Indians an island in the Passaic River, now (1929) part of Acquackanonk Park, in the First Ward, where he at once settled.
January – Sir George Carteret dies; Gov. Andros soon after asserts authority over New Jersey and challenges Gov. Philip Carteret’s authority.http://www.njarchives.org/links/pdf/proprietors.pdf
Duke of York’s 2nd Grant to William Penn, et. al. August 6, 1680 http://www.westjerseyhistory.org/docs/wjdocs1/index.shtml
August – Deed of confirmation is issued by the Duke of York conveying West Jersey to Edward Byllynge and other proprietors.
November – Duke James informs Gov. Andros that he has relieved East and West Jersey of his rights to government and public duties.
START HERE IN NJ ARCHIVES - THERE IS LOTS
1681 - Province Of West New-Jersey in America, The 25th of the Ninth Month Called November. 1681
1682 - Confirmation to the 24 Proprietors: 14th of March 1682
1687 - Twenty-nine Swedish landowners worked 5000 acres of farm and grazing land between Oldman’s and Timber Creeks in 1687.
1693 - Late 1600s migration brought Swedes to the stream banks of Cumberland County and to the shore, where the first known settlement of a Swedish family, that of James Steelman, occurred along the Great Egg Harbor River in 1693.
1696 - Three years later, Steelman was chosen to supervise the laying of a road between Gloucester and the Great Egg Harbor.
1697 - By 1697, the Swedish population of New Jersey was nearly 1000. New emigrations from Europe and a continuing high birth rate swelled their numbers. Long since, the uncertain economy based on a trade in furs and pelts had given way to a more permanent and secure order founded on agriculture and cattle raising.
1697 - On the Burlington County side of the Little Egg Harbor River, Eric Mullica fixed a plantation in 1697. This Swede was the first European to explore the river that today bears his name.
1665 - Sir George Carteret granted a form of government in what was known as the "Concessions," which granted religious liberty to Englishmen in the new colony, and a government to be carried on by a governor, council, and an assembly of twelve to be chosen by the people, and no taxes were to be laid without the consent of the assembly. A farm, free for five years, was offered to any one "having a good musket... and six months' provisions,"1 who should embark with the governor, or meet him on his arrival; while those who came later were to pay a half-penny an acre quitrent.
1665 - Carteret began to colonize his new possessions. He sent his nephew, Philip Carteret, as governor, who, with a company of emigrants, made the first settlement at Elizabethtown, so named in honor of Sir George's wife.
1666 - On October 30, 1666, the following residents of Branford and Milford of the New Haven Colony
signed the agreement to form a common township at New-Ark on Pesayack
(the number shown is the order in which they signed the document):
http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~genepool/newark2.htm Publishing the Concessions was specifically intended to attract settlers to NJ and it was successful. After considerable debate, the anti-royalists of Branford, Guilford, New Haven and Milford signed various declarations and started over again in NJ. http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~genepool/newark.htm The Puritans had fled from intolerance, but no sooner did they have freedom to follow their own devices, than they drew up the most drastic of laws and enforced them with grim harshness. So they erected their colony, the chief towns being New Haven and Milford on one side of New Haven harbor. This was to be the last attempt but one of the Puritans in America to build up a theocracy. It was to take nearly 30 years to prove that a Kingdom of God on earth, an "Isle of Innocence", could not be made to work in the New Haven Colony; after which the final attempt was to be made by people of these four towns, in Newark.
The Legacy of the Early Founders of the New Haven Colony
who came to Newark, New Jersey in 1666
1668 Captain Wm. SANDFORD bought New Barbadoes Patent between Passaic and Hackensack Rivers for 7 miles up from Newark Bay.
1669 Captain John BERRY buys Berry Patent for 6 miles further up Passaic River to present Passaic County Line
1673 - The Ancient and Honourable Order of the Jersey Blues was organized at Piscataway and Woodbridge, New Jersey in 1673 "to repel foreign Indians who come down from upper Pennsylvania and western New York (in the summer) to our shores and fill (themselves) with fishes and clams and on the way back make a general nuisance of themselves by burning hay stacks, corn fodder and even barns."
1676 - West Jersey, New Jersey Deed Records, 1676-1721 - John David Davis. Sir George Carteret was appointed New Jersey's first governor in August 1665, at the age of twenty-five. In July 1673, the Dutch reconquered New York and New Jersey and they remained until Britain regained the two colonies in November 1674. In March 1674, Sir George agreed to a partition of the province into East and West New Jersey. The diagonal boundary gave Sir George all the inhabited lands. The two divisions remained separate until 1702, when New Jersey became a royal province. The format followed in the abstraction of the deeds of West Jersey, New Jersey is: date of transaction, name of grantor(s), occupation of the grantor(s), place of residence of grantor(s), name of grantee(s), occupation of the grantee(s), place of residence of grantee(s), sales price, area of land involved, neighbors, chain of deed, signature of grantor(s) and signature of witnesses
1677 - The Kearney Deed - This deed, for the land on which present-day Kearny, New Jersey is located, is one of the oldest New Jersey deeds of purchase of land from Native Americans that exists in its original document form. It represents one of many such transactions that took place in the early years of European colonization in North America.
1678 - The first white man to settle in what is now the city of Passaic was Hartman Michielse, who, by deed, dated April 4, 1678, purchased from the Indians an island in the Passaic River, now (1929) part of Acquackanonk Park, in the First Ward, where he at once settled.
http://www.lambertcastle.org/foundingpassaic.html July 15th - First land in Passaic County bought of the King’s Proprietors. The "Point Patent" of 278 acres adjoining Dundee Island.
1679 March 28 - Lenni Lenape Indians sold the Acquackanonk Patent rights to 14 Dutchmen.
In 1680 George Carteret died, and two years later East Jersey was sold at auction to twelve men, one of whom was William Penn.2 Each of these twelve men sold half his interest to another man, and thus East Jersey came to have twenty-four proprietors, and they chose Robert Barclay, a Scotch Quaker, governor for life. Everything went smoothly under their mild government; but this tranquility was soon to end.
1682 - When James II became king of England he demanded the charters of the Jerseys on writes of quo warranto, leaving the ownership of the soil to the people, and united East and West Jersey to New York and New England under the government of Andros. At the fall of the king and the expulsion of Andros the Jerseys were left in a state of anarchy, and so it continued for more than ten years. The heirs of Carteret and the Quakers laid claim to the colony; and New York made a similar claim. http://www.usgennet.org/usa/topic/colonial/book/chap7_3.html
1683 - While Christopher Hoagland had obtained a patent July 15, 1678, simultaneously with the deed from the Indians for the Point land (Passaic) , Hartman, owner of the island and the fourteen men who purchased Acquackanonk, like many others in East Jersey, denied the necessity of securing patents, claiming that Indian deeds were all that was necessary. A controversy followed lasting four years, and ended only when the Governor, by a letter dated February 29, 1683-4, notified all persons that claims of title under Indian deeds would not stand; that under them they had acquired no title and would have none unless they secured a patent, failure to obtain which would work forfeiture of the land. They soon obtained patents.
1689 - Bergen County, New Jersey Deed Records, 1689-1801
1695 November 11th - Arent SCHUYLER and Anthony BROCKHOLLS buy the Pompton Patent.
1701 - In 1701, 13,500 acres west of Newark was purchased for $325 (or about 2.5-cents an acre) from Loantique, Taphow, Manshum and others. The original deed burned in a house fire in 1745. Descendants of the signers of the original deed promptly signed a new document. These deeds were challenged as being unlawful. According to a survey in 1746, only 35 families lived in the area. When Samuel Baldwin was arrested in 1745 for trespassing on his own land, his neighbors armed themselves with clubs, axes and crow-bars and descended on the jail to liberate him. The struggle against the Proprietors continued until 1755. Daniel Lamson and John Condict acted as agents for the Landowner's Committee and pleaded the settlers case to the King in England
1702 - After a long season of confusion it was decided to surrender the whole colony to the Crown, and in 1702 New Jersey became a royal province. Queen Anne, who was now the reigning monarch, extended the jurisdiction of New York’s governor over New Jersey, and this arrangement continued for thirty-six years, when in 1738, the two colonies were finally separated.
FULL TEXT - Surrender from the Proprietors of East and West New Jersey, 1702
1709 November 18 - Deed from the Indians for the Great Ramapo Tract - 42,500 acres for $1,452.
New York – New Jersey Line War
1738 - when in 1738, the two colonies were finally separated.
n 1744, the Iroquois signed a treaty with several English colonies, including Virginia. In exchange for gifts and money, the Iroquois gave up rights to any lands claimed by Virginia. What the Indians did not know was that the colonial charter of Virginia claimed that its western boundary extended to the Pacific Ocean.
1760 - New Jersey, numbering some seventy-five thousand inhabitants in 1760
1776 - Constitution of New Jersey; 1776
1785 - Until the Land Act of 1785 transferred the recording of deeds to the counties, land conveyances after the initial grants from the proprietors were recorded in the East and West New Jersey capitals, Perth Amboy and Burlington, and in 1795 transferred to Trenton, where they became known as the Secretary of State's Deeds. These deeds, dating 1664 to the 1800s, are at the state archives. It has been estimated that only a quarter of colonial land transfers were recorded.
Bartholomew S. Calvin (Shawuskukukung - "Wilted Grass") on March 12, 1832, wrote the legislature a letter that forever eased the consciences of a state. His most quoted paragraph:
Not a drop of our blood have you spilled in battle; not an acre of ground have you taken but by our consent. These facts speak for themselves and need no comment. They place the character of New Jersey in bold relief and bright example to those states within whose territorial limits our brethern still remain. Naught save benisons can fall upon her from the lips of a Lenni-Lenape.
1842 - In the United States Supreme Court, Chief Justice Taney held, in the case of Martin et al. vs. Waddell, as reported in 16 Peter, 347: The English possessions in America were not claimed by right of conquest, but by right of discovery. According to principles of international law, then understood by the civilized powers of Europe, the Indian tribes of the new world were regarded as mere temporary occupants of the soil; and the absolute rights of property and dominion were held to belong to the European nations by which any portion of the new country was first discovered.
http://www.lambertcastle.org/foundingpassaic.html In our own State(NJ), in the case of the Mayor and Common Council of Neward vs. George Watson et al., Hon. David A. Depue, Justice of the Supreme Court, held: By the English common law, the title to lands in this State was vested in the English Crown; and it is a fundamental principle in English Colonial jurisprudence that all titles to lands in this colony passed to individuals from the Crown, through the Colonial or Proprietary authorities.
Some sources to check possibly
West Jersey Proprietors Records 1681-1952. Microfilm.
Minutes of the Board of the Proprietors of the Eastern Division of New Jersey 1685-1794. 4 Volumes.
NJ REF 974.9 B631
Patents and Deeds and other Early Records of New Jersey, 1664-1703.
NJ REF 929.3 N331
History of the Land Titles in Hudson County, NJ 1609-1871.
NJ REF 929.1 W722
Journal of the Governor and Council 1631-1776.
(New Jersey Archives 1st Series)
NJ REF 974.9 N461
tart here have these ites open