ZHOU GENEALOGY
(Warring States Period
)
 

469 – 441 Zhōu Dìng-wáng Jiè, Thirty-First Emperor of Zhou. His reign marks the beginning of the Warring States Era, as the State of Qin declined and the other states of China began to consolidate into larger units. He died in 441, but had issue:

  • 1) Zhōu Āi-wáng Qùjí, Thirty-Second Emperor of Zhou (see below)
  • 2) Zhōu Sī-wáng Shū, Thirty-Third Emperor of Zhou (see below)
  • 3) Zhōu Kǎo-wáng Wéi, Thirty-Fourth Emperor of Zhou (see below)
  • ?) Xīzhōu Jī Huán-gōng. He was given the town of Hénán, in the western half of the royal domain, as a fief, becoming Duke of West Zhou. He had issue:
    • a) Xīzhōu Jī Wēi-gōng, Duke of West Zhou. He had issue:
      • i) Xīzhōu Jī Huì-gōng, Duke of West Zhou.
        • (1) Dōngzhōu Jī Huì-gōng. He was given the town of Gǒng, in the eastern half of the royal domain, becoming Duke of East Zhou. This left the territory actually under the Emperor’s direct control as little more than the capital itself. 

441 Zhōu Āi-wáng Qùjí, Thirty-Second Emperor of Zhou. He succeeded his father in 441, but was killed by his younger brother after only three months on the throne.

441 Zhōu Sī-wáng Shū, Thirty-Third Emperor of Zhou. He gained the throne in 441 by killing his older brother, but was himself killed by his younger brother after only five months of rule.

441 – 426 Zhōu Kǎo-wáng Wéi, Thirty-Fourth Emperor of Zhou. He gained the throne by killing his older brother (who had gained the throne by the same method only five months earlier). He ruled for fifteen years until his death in 426. He had issue:

  • 1) Zhōu Wēiliè-wáng , Thirty-Fifth Emperor of Zhou (see below)

426 – 402 Zhōu Wēiliè-wáng , Thirty-Fifth Emperor of Zhou. He officially established three breakaway provinces of Qin (Hán, Wèi and Zhào) as feudal states, to act as a buffer between his royal domain and Qin (nominally one of his subjects). He died in 402, but had issue:

  • 1) Zhōu Ān-wáng Jiāo, Thirty-Sixth Emperor of Zhou (see below)

402 – 376 Zhōu Ān-wáng Jiāo, Thirty-Sixth Emperor of Zhou. He died in 376, but had issue:

  • 1) Zhōu Liè-wáng , Thirty-Seventh Emperor of Zhou (see below)
  • 2) Zhōu Xiǎn-wáng Biǎn, Thirty-Eighth Emperor of Zhou (see below)

376 – 369 Zhōu Liè-wáng , Thirty-Seventh Emperor of Zhou. In his reign, Lao Tzu, founder of Daoism, prophesied the end of Zhou. He died in 369, or possibly 366.

369 – 321 Zhōu Xiǎn-wáng Biǎn, Thirty-Eighth Emperor of Zhou. He sent gifts to many of the feudal states, supposedly his vassals, particularly Qin and Chu. Late in his reign, the leaders of the states declared themselves kings (then the same word as Emperor), and ceased to recognise the Emperor of Zhou as even nominally their overlord. He died in 321, but had issue:

  • 1) Zhōu Shènjìng-wáng Dìng, Thirty-Ninth Emperor of Zhou (see below)

321 – 315 Zhōu Shènjìng-wáng Dìng, Thirty-Ninth Emperor of Zhou.  He died in 315, but had issue:

  • 1) Zhōu Nǎn-wáng Yán, Fortieth Emperor of Zhou (see below).
315 – 256 Zhōu Nǎn-wáng Yán, Fortieth Emperor of Zhou. He moved his capital into the Duchy of West Zhou. In 307, the State of Qin attacked the State of Han and Chu came to Han’s defence. Zhou, nominally on Qin’s side, resorted to ever more desperate diplomatic intrigues to avoid being attacked by any of these former vassals. In the course of his reign, Zhou was attacked by Han, invaded by the Duchy of East Zhou, threatened by Liang, and attacked by Qin. In 256 it became clear that Qin would conquer Han, and then the rest of China. Zhou “led the elite forces of the world” in a last ditch effort to defeat Qin. When Qin sent a skilled general to face the forces of Zhou, Nǎn-wáng surrendered without a fight conceding even the title of Emperor. He returned home a mere lord and died in 255. Both Zhou and the Duchy of East Zhou were conquered by Qin in the next few years.