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Classified Hip-Hop
Or I wanna blow up like Marilyn Monroe's
skirt1

The Introduction

Hip hop as a ding an sich is marked by some confusion. Consider the name; is it "hip hop," "hip-hop" or "hiphop"? You will see all three used in titles in this bibliography. Hip hop is, at the same time, a cultural phenomenon that developed in the late 70's in the projects in Brooklyn and the Bronx, and a musical style from that phenomenon. Nevertheless, hip hop has become a pervasive element of popular culture, as witnessed by this bibliography. There are hip hop exercise videos, children's books as well as books, magazines, magazine articles and theses about it.

Before we get to the bibliography, a brief hip hop history is in order. Hip hop began in the mid- to late 70's, but its roots are much older (indeed, hip hop's use of music from other genres is reflected in Renaissance parody masses). According to one source, the roots of this phenomenon are in Jamaica in the 40's. By the 60's, it was common to find "sounds", or a truck fitted with sound equipment parked at a street corner, playing American rhythm & blues records for the people in the neighborhood. Some of these DJs included Coxson Dodd, Prince Buster, and Duke Reid. By the 1970's this phenomenon was to be found in the US, particularly in the Farragut Projects in Brooklyn, NY. Some of these early DJs were Maboya, Plummer and Kool DJ D, who played mostly disco music. Another of these early figures, Kool Herc, emigrated to the States from Jamaica and settled in the Bronx with his sound system he called "the Herculords." In contrast to some of the other figures, Kool Herc focused on rhythm & blues and funk records. Another of Kool Herc's innovations was to play only the "break," or the musical material between the verses of a song, repeating that break again and again. He did this using two turntables mounted with the same record. This came to be called "break-beat deejaying." People began to perform "strange, acrobatic twisting dance routines" to these episodes that came to be called "break dances."2

Kool Herc eventually hired someone to "MC" these parties. This person would talk to the crowd between the songs to keep the party going. This was the beginning of "rapping." DJ Hollywood, one of the early MC's at Kool Herc's parties would use rhyming verses in his rap. One of these included the words "hip hop" "which much later were used interchangeably to define the music of rap and the culture of those who attended Kool Herc's parties."3

Afrika Bambaata was another early figure in the rap/hip hop world. He participated in many early "battles," or competitions between DJs and MCs. In addition to rapping, these battles were decided on who had the more interesting collection of breaks to play. Afrika Bambatta's breaks were drawn from many genres, including rock, rhythm & blues, mambo, German disco and calypso.4 This aspect in hip hop, incorporating "found sounds" (which can include recorded samples of music by other groups in addition to voices or ambient sounds) has led to lawsuits when the groups involved failed to credit their sources.5

Another early hip hop innovator was DJ Grandmaster Flash. He extended Kool Herc's break beat deejaying by pre-cueing records to match the songs. This meant there was a much smoother transition between songs. matching songs. Indeed many of the recordings in the discography identify the number of beats per minute for each song, enabling a DJ to match songs on this basis.

Scratching, an important part of hip hop music was developed by Grand Wizard Theodore. This technique involves moving a record back and forth underneath the needle, creating a scratching, percussive sound. This technique has led some to claim that hip hop has led to the emergence of the DJ as musician, calling the turntable used in this way a percussion instrument.6

Hip hop has also had an impact on the continuing production of recordings in the LP format. Without this format, hip hop DJs would be unable to do scratching, such an important aspect of the music.

For better or for worse, hip hop has invaded popular culture. It also reflects that culture for good or ill. Some hip hop is racist, some is sexist. But there are also many hip hop musicians who focus on such issues as social inequity and the danger of heroin use. From its early days in the US, being played in projects and some underground clubs, it has gained a profile that has led even to its inclusion in the 1992 presidential debates over Sister Soljah. In the 20th Century Fox movie, Bulworth,7 Warren Beatty plays a Senator who berates his opponents using rap. Hip hop, it would seem, is here to stay.

Bibliography:

Coupe, Stuart and Glenn E. Baker. The New Rock 'N' Roll: The A-Z of Rock in the 80's. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1983.

Hardy, Phil and Dave Laing. Encyclopedia of Rock. New York: Schirmer Books, 1988.

Clifford, Mike, consulting editor. The Harmony Illustrated History Encyclopedia of Rock. New York: Harmony Books, 1992.

Heatley, Michael. The Ultimate Encyclopedia of Rock: The World's Most Comprehensive Illustrated Rock Reference. New York: Harper Collins, 1993.

Romanowsky, Patricia and Holly George-Warren, eds. The New Rolling Stone Encyclopedia of Rock & Roll. New York: Fireside, 1995.

Small, Michael. Break it down: The Inside Story from the New Leaders of Rap. New York: Carol Publishing Group: 1992.

Stancell, Steven. Rap Whoz who: The World of Rap Music. New York: Schirmer Music, 1996.

Hip-hop webliography

The Bibliography

Aerobics sound recordings

Hip hop world. Baltimore, MD: Dynamix Music Service, 1994.

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Books

Alim, Hesham. "Exploring the Transglobal Hip Hop Ummah." In Muslim Networks: From Hajj to Hip Hop, Miriam Cooke and Bruce Lawrence (eds.) Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2004.

_____. "Hearing what's not said and missing what is: Black Language in White public space." In Discourse and Intercultural Communication: The Essential Readings,Scott Keisling and Christina Paulston (eds.). Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 2004.

_____. "Hip Hop Nation Language." In Language in the USA, Edward Finegan and John Rickford (eds.) . New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

_____. "'We Are the Streets': African American Language and the
strategic construction of a street conscious identity." In Black Linguistics: Language, Society and Politics in Africa and the Americas. Makoni, S., Smitherman, G., Ball, A., Spears, A. (eds.) New York & London: Routledge, 2003.

Basu, Dipannita. Rap music, hip-hop culture, and the music industry in Los Angeles. In CAAS (Center for Afro-American Studies) report. 15 (1-2), 1992-1994, pages 20-24. Los Angeles: UCLA: 1994.

Bazin, Hugues. La culture hip-hop. Paris: Desclee de Brouwer, 1995.

Boyd, Todd. The New H.N.I.C. New York: New York University Press, 2003. Boyd, discussing "the new head niggers in charge" posits that politics should make way for hip-hop as the language for a new generation.

Bracey, John H. and Manisha Sinha, eds. African American Mosaic: A Documentary History from the Slave Trade to the Twenty -First Century, Vol. 2, From 1865 To The Present." Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson/Prentice Hall Textbooks, 2004. Contains a chapter by James Spady entitled "The Hip Hop Vision, which examines the visionary aspects of Hip Hop and its historical and cultural relationship to African American and African Diasporic History. It is the first critical essay on Hip Hop to be included in a textbook on African American history.

Bradley, Adam. Book of Rhymes: The Poetics of Hip-Hop. Jackson, Tennessee: Basic Civitas Books, 2009. "English Studies 101 meets Hip-hop Studies 101." Reviewed by Baz Dreisinger in The New York Times Book Review, September 13, 2009.

Campbell, Mary. Hip hop happy!: adventures in physical activity for 3-5 year olds. Ottawa: Serious Fun Enterprises, 1994.

Chang, Jeff. Can't stop won't stop: A History of the Hip-hop Generation. New York : St. Martin’s Press, 2005. "[A] definitive history of the hip-hop generation." Baz Dreisinger.

Dargaville, Michael. The hip hop leap frog: a novel. Bungendore, N.S.W.: Central Sun Books, 1995. Illustrated.

Fab 5 Freddy. Fresh fly flavor: words & phrases of the hip-hop generation. Stamford, CT: Longmeadow Press, 1992.

Fernando, S. H. The new beats: exploring the music culture and attitudes of hip-hop. Edinburgh: Payback Press, 1995. Bibliography and index.

_____. The new beats: exploring the music, culture, and attitudes of hip-hop. 1st Anchor Books ed. New York: Anchor Books/Doubleday, 1994. Bibliography and index.

Forman, Murray. The 'hood: Race, space and place in Rap and Hip-hop. Wesleyan Press: 2002. Examines how rap and hip-hop portray neighboorhoods to emphasize culture and identity.

Fresh, Mr. Tout sur la breakdance et la hip hop culture. Lausanne, Suisse: P.M. Favre, 1984.

George, Nelson, et al. Fresh, Hip Hop Don't Stop. New York: Random House, 1985. Illustrated.

Hager, S. Hip Hop: The Illustrated History of Break Dancing, Rap Music, and Graffiti. New York: St. Martin's, 1984. Illustrated. Reviewed in Billboard 96litor.

Hawksley, Gerald. Hip and Hop. New York: Gallery Books, 1987.

Hundgen, G., Karnik, Olaf. Chasin' a dream : die Musik des schwarzen Amerika von Soul bis HipHop. Koln : Kiepenheuer & Witsch, 1989. Index, discography and bibliography.

Krulik, Nancy E. M.C. Hammer & Vanilla Ice: the hip-hop never stops!. New York, NY: Scholastic, Inc., 1991.

Kunjufu, Jawanza. Hip-hop vs. MAAT: a psycho/social analysis of values. Chicago, IL: African American Images, 1993.

Lhamon, W. T. Raising Cain: blackface performance from Jim Crow to Hip Hop. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1998.

Liles, Kevin. Make It Happen: The Hip-Hop Generation Guide to Success. Atria: 2005.

MEE Symposium. Reaching the hip-hop generation: final (symposium proceedings) report. [Philadelphia]: MEE Productions, 1993.

Nelson, H. and Gonzales, M.A. Bring the noise: a guide to rap music and hip-hop culture. NY: Harmony, 1991, 1988.8

Pardue, Derek Parkman. Movement as metaphor for blackness: hip hop as act. Report (M. Music)--University of Texas at Austin, 1996.

Perkins, William Eric. Droppin' science: critical essays on rap music and hip hop culture. Critical Perspectives on the Past. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1996.

Plantu. Le president hip hop! [Paris?]: Le Monde, 1991.

Potter, Russell A. Spectacular vernaculars: hip-hop and the politics of postmodernism. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1995. Bibliography and index.

Redmond, Eugene, ed. Drumvoices. University of Illinois, Edwardsville, Illinois, 2004. Contains "The Hip Hop Nation as a Site of African American Cultural and Historical Memory" by James Spady.

Reeves, Marcus. Somebody scream!: rap music’s rise to prominence in the aftershock of black power. New York: Faber and Faber, 2008. Reviewed by Baz Dreisinger.

Roberts, John W. From hucklebuck to hip-hop: social dance in the African-American community in Philadelphia. Philadelphia, Pa.: Odunde, 1995.

Runell, Marcella, Tatiana Forero Puerta, and Martha Diaz. The Hip-Hop Education Guidebook Volume 1. The Hip-Hop Association, 2007. Using Hip-Hop music and culture to enliven education.

Sansevere, John R. Post-bop hip-hop: a tribe called Quest. [Racine, Wis.]: Western Pub. Co., 1993.

Sexton, Adam., ed. Rap on rap: straight-up talk on hip-hop culture. New York: Delta, 1995.

Shabazz, Julian L. D. The United States of America vs. hip-hop. Hampton, VA: United Bros. Pub. Co., 1992.

Shaw, Arnold. Black popular music in America : from the spirituals, minstrels, and ragtime to soul, disco, and hip-hop. New York: London: Schirmer Books; Collier Macmillan, 1986.

Shomari, Hashim A. From the underground : hip hop culture as an agent of social change. Fanwood, NJ: X-Factor Publications, 1995.

Smash, Nick. Hip hop 86-89. Woodford Green, Essex, England: International Music Publications, 1990. Illustrated.

Spady, James G., and Joseph D. Eure. Nation conscious rap. AfroAmericanization of knowledge series; 3. New York: PC International Press, 1991.

______, H. Samy Alim and Samir Meghelli. Tha Global Cipha: Hip Hop Culture and Consciousness. Philadelphia, Pa.: Black History Museum Press, 2006. "the first book about Hip Hop Culture to present in-depth conversations with artists from around the world."

______, H. Samy Alim and Charles G. Lee. Street Conscious Rap. Philadelphia, Pa.: Black History Museum, 1999. Street Conscious Rap is the third volume in the first and only hip hop trilogy of its kind. "This book includes brand new essays, illustrations, rare photos, and interviews with a wide range of hip hop artists." from http://secure01.win.net/aalbc/street.htm [online page taken down 6/26/2003].

______, Charles G. Lee and Stefan Dupres. Twisted tales: in the hip hop streets of Philly. Philadelphia: Black History Museum Umum Publishers, 1995.

Speregen, Devra. Hip hop till you drop. New York: Pocket Books, 1994.

Stavsky, Lois. A 2 Z : the book of rap & hip-hop slang. New York: Boulevard Books, 1995. Bibliography and discography.

Toop, David. Rap attack 2: African rap to global hip hop. London ; New York: Serpent's Tail, 1994.

_____. The rap attack: American jive to New York hip hop. London: Pluto, 1984. Bibliography and index.

Underwood Street Productions. On top! your spot in the multi-billion dollar music industry : compiled for todays' hip-hop and R & B acts. Detroit, MI: Underwood Street Productions, 1994.

Watkins, S. Craig. Representing: Hip hop culture and the production of Black cinema. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998. Bibliography and index.

Webber, Stephen. Turntable basics Boston, MA: Berklee Press, 2000.

Webber, Stephen. Turntable technique: The Art of the D.J. Boston, MA: 2000.

White, Miles. The high fidelity turntable system and the creation of hip hop music: an organological inquiry. M.A. Thesis, University of Washington, 1996. Included is a videocasette with examples of disc jockeys demonstating the use of turntables in hip hop music. Bibliography.

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Children's books

Brook, Sally. Hip and Hop. London: Blackie Childrens, 1987. Illustrated.

Giovanni, Nikki, ed. Hip Hop Speaks to Children: A Celebration of Poetry With a Beat. Illinois: Sourcebook, 2008. "A celebration of poetry with a beat."

Parker, Vic. Bearobics: a hip-hop counting story, New York: Viking, 1997.

Vozar, David. M.C. Turtle and the hip hop hare: a happenin' rap. New York: Doubleday Dell, 1997.

Wade, Gini. Curtis the hip-hop cat. London: Macmillan Children's, 1986.

Musical Scores.

Mintzer, Bob. Hip hop. Delevan, N.Y.: Mintzer Music Co. 1985. For jazz ensemble.

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Films

5 Sides of a Coin (Seventh Art Releasing, 2004). Explores hip-hop's origins in the Bronx and subsequent spread to Europe and Japan, for the most part ignoring developments in the southern and western U.S.

8 Mile (Universal, 2002). Hip-hop artist Eminem portrays struggle of white rapper to gain acceptance in the hip-hop world.

Backstage (2002). Directed by Chris Fiore. A documentary about a a DMX tour.

Boston Beats and Rhymes (Scott Limanek, 2004). "examines the rise and struggle to create a respected, thriving, and creative hip hop music scene in a city not friendly to rap music or its fans."

Bulworth (20th Century Fox [US], 1998). Directed by Warren Beatty. A senator tires of the hypocracy of his life and sets out to speak the truth - in rap after takinga contract out on himself.

Carmen: A Hip Hopera (2001 TV movie) starring Beyonce Knowles and Mekhi Phifer.

The Freshest Kids (QD3 Entertainment, 2002). Documentary about hip-hop culture featuring break dancer Wayne Frost, among others. Trailers available here.

The Hip-Hop Project. (Pressure Point Films, 2006). Matt Ruskin, director. Documents Chris Rolle's project in New York that focuses on at-risk, inner-city youth.

Da Hip Hop Witch, (A-pix Entertainment, Inc., 2000). Directed by Dale Anthony Resteghini. "5 white kids get lost in the hood looking for da hip hop witch, a year later their footage was found." (Quotation from The Internet Movie Database

Hip hop vs. America (2007 documentary: Black Entertainment Television press release; Editorial by Keith Boykin; Comments from Hip-Hop Linguistics.

Jails, Hospitals & Hip-Hop (Kicked Down Productions, 2000). Directed by Mark Benjamin and Danny Hoch. Based on Mr. Hoch's stage monologue of the same name. Not yet commercially released.

Snipes (2001) directed by Rich Murray.

Stomp the Yard (Sony Pictures, 2007) focuses on a dance-off and is "an inspirational tale about a hip-hop boy in a stepping world" (review by Rachel Saltz in The New York Times (January 12, 2007), p. B11. Directed by Sylvain White, screenplay by Robert Adetuyi.

Straight Outta Puerto Rico: Reggaeton's Rough Road to Glory (Xenon Pictures, 2007). Documentary by James Chankin.

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Online Articles

Barnes. Homo homies: Queers with attitude kick open the hip-hop closet. Xtra March 21, 2002.

Blanc, Alvin aqua. Founding Fathers: Before The Bronx "there are DJ’s in the boroughs of Brooklyn and Queens, contemporaries of [DJ Kool] Herc, that would beg to differ" that Herc founded hip-hop in the Bronx. Article from allhiphop.com.

Chonin, Neva. "Hip to homo-hop Oakland's D/DC fuses gay and black identities with eyebrow-raising rhyme." San Francisco Chronicle (Dec. 16, 2001): http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/chronicle/archive/2001/12/16/PK231895.DTL. Chronicles the beginning of D/DC (Deep Dickollective).

D, Davey. "Gays & Hip Hop Refute the Stereotypes." San Jose Mercury News (June 29, 2002): http://www.daveyd.com/FullArticles/articleN1151.asp. Exploration of what it means to be gay in the hip-hop world.

Henderson, Alex. "Hip-House." allmusic.com

________. "Hip-Hop Producers". allmusic.com

Lee, Mike. "Holy Hip Hop 101." <http://blackgrooves.org/?p=651> (May 9, 2008). Accessed June 11, 2008. Traces development of Christian rap.

Norman, Doug. The Identity Politics of Queer Hip Hop. University of Texas at Austin. N.D. Explores "the radical politics of queer hip hop or “homohop ” as some have dubbed it." Avaliable online at http://www.cwrl.utexas.edu/~norman/papers/QueerHipHop.pdf.

Obadike, Mendi Lewis. "Hip-Hop, Queerness, and the Faculty Parking Lot (or Get Used to It)." One woman's perspective on what it means to be young, black, gay and a teacher at a small college as well as exploring her attraction to hip-hop. Available online at http://obadike.tripod.com/sweat/deepdic.html.

Waltzer, Errol "Spike." "Mutilated Mannquins." The Y Files (Issue 1, April 2002): http://www.spike00.com/clubky/mannequins.htm. Interview with hip-hop group that takes issue with D/DC's marketing of their bi- and homosexuality.

Wilkins, Langston Collin. "Hip Hop is Dead." <http://blackgrooves.org/?p=286> (April 10, 2007). Accessed June 11, 2008.

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Periodical Literature

Aaron, C. "Boychiks in the hoodie (hip-hop/punk rock). Spin 10 (July 194):49-50+.

Abramovich, Alex. "Hip-hop Family Values." The New York Times (5 December 2004):Section 2, 35. Hip-hop artist Nasir Jones (Nasty Nas, Nas Escobar, Nastradaums) includes father Olu Dara (Charles Jones III), a "Harlem-based singer, cornetist and bandleader" on Nas's new CD "Street's Disciple."

Abe, Daudi. "Hip-hop: bringing knowledge from the streets to academia." The Seattle Times (April 12. 2007) Editorials and Opinion section. Viewed online on April 13, 2007 at http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/opinion/2003663435_hiphop12.htmlHip-hop and academia as viewed through the writings of Howard Green.

Alexander, Donnell. "Smoke And Mirrors: House of Blues' Smokin' Grooves Tour Tries to Bring Hip-Hop Back to Live--Or Does It?" The Village Voice 41:32 (6 August 1996):55, 58.

Alim, H. Samy. "360 Degreez of Black Art Comin At You: Sista Sonia Sanchez and the Dimensions of a Black Arts Continuum." BMa: The Sonia Sanchez Literary Review. 6.1 (Fall 2000). p. 15-35. Discusses the philosophical, political, linguistic, and cultural continuities between the Black Arts Movement of the 1960's and 70's and the Hip Hop Movement.

_____. "Diversifying our approaches to language and literacy development." Language Magazine, December 2001, 29-31. Examines Hip Hop and education.

_____. "On some serious next millennium rap ishhh: Pharoahe Monch, Hip Hop poetics, and the internal rhymes of Internal Affairs. Journal of English Linguistics 31(1), 60-84.

_____. "Street-conscious copula variation in the Hip Hop Nation." American Speech 77(3), 288-304.

________. "THREE-X-BLACK: Mos Def, Mr. Nigga (Nigga, Nigga) and Big Black Afrika X-amine Hip Hop's Cultural Consciousness." in Alim, H. "Hip Hop Culture: Language, Literature, Literacy and the Lives of Black Youth," special issue of The Black Arts Quarterly. Stanford, CA: Stanford University/ Committee on Black Performing Arts, 2001. Discusses hip hop's cultural consciousness by examining Mos Def critically through his life (direct interview data), music and film career.

Alim, H. Samy, (ed). "Black Culture's Global Impact." Special issue of The Black Arts Quarterly, vol. 7(1). Stanford, CA: Stanford University/Committee on Black Performing Arts, 2002.

______. "Hip Hop Culture: Language, Literature, Literacy and the Lives of Black Youth." Special issue of The Black Arts Quarterly. Stanford, CA: Stanford University/Committee on Black Performing Arts, 2001.

Allen, Harry. "Electromag: Invisible Band." Village Voice 33 (October 25, 1988):E10-11. Re: hip-hop and electronics.

________. "Rap--multimedia with soul: hip-hop's new digital underground wants to plant the seeds of revolution in rich cybersoil." Billboard 107 (November 25, 1995):40+. Illustrated.

________. "The albatross lands: the year in hip-hop. Musician n123 (January, 1989):77+.

________. "Today's Mathematics." The Village Voice (December 4-10, 2002):68. Review of Jurassic 5's "Power in Numbers."

Anderson, Jack. "Letting Hip-Hop Convey Humanity's Struggle." The New York Times (May 16, 2003):B4. Rennie Harris blends hip-hop with other dance traditions to create a 90-minute work of "struggle, opression and attempts at liberation."

Anonymous. "Paid In Full: Madison Avenue Cashes In with Hip Hop." VIBE 4:7 (September 1996):58.

Anonymous. "Someone’s in the Closet With Sylvester." R. Kellys hip-hopera releases chapters 13-22 on DVD. Artist Andrew Kuo's rendering of the opera's interrelationships is available online. Sputnik music has a review of chapters 1-12.

Arena, Patrick. "Sounds like a good 2001." Washington Blade (Dec. 8, 2001):online article taken down. Review of press coverage & homohop in 2001.

Atwood, Brett. "ECDs Get Hip-Hop Flavor Via Loud Records." Billboard: The International Newsweekly of Music, Video and Home Entertainment 108:48 (26 November 1996):72.

Ault, Susanne. "GN'R, Mix Master Mike Tour Set to Broaden Both Fan Bases." Billboard (December 7, 2002):35.

Ballinger, J. "Can you Wu, Wu, Wu. East Coast hip hop." Rock and Rap Confidential 117 (August 1994):4.

Bannon, Lisa. "Word of Mouth Helps 'Rapper Dentist Daddy' Corner Flashy Market." The Wall Street Journal (19 July 2001):A1, A4. California Dentist makes gold crowns with diamond studs for the Hip-Hop community.

Bass, Patrik. "Hip-Hop's Video Doctor." The New York Times 145:50425 (12 May 1996):39, 42.

Baraka, Rhonda. "Hip-Hop Enigma Draper Cleans House." Billboard December 14, 2002):16.

Beam, Alex. "From Heroditus to Hip-Hop." The Boston Globe (December 27, 2006): E1. General musings about college requirements? Fly over of hip-hop study in the academe today? I could not tell.

Berry, Alan. "The Tale of the Tapes." The New York Times (April 11, 2006): A21. Record store owner Berry bemoans the "surreal way of doing business" in which record store owners are sued by music companies for selling mix tapes that use material that the companies give them to use in mix tapes.

Birnbaum, L. "Hip hop -- a schoolboy's primer." Ear 13 N2 (1988):6-7.

_____. "Hiphop - a Schoolboy's Prime." Ear, Magazine of New Music 13 (1988):6-7. Illustrated.

_____. "Jazz for the hip-hop nation." Down Beat 60 (February 1993):33-36.

Bishop, Gregg. "Look Tech: Hip Hop on the Web." VIBE 4:4 (May 1996):106.

Bloom, Jonathan. "Singing Hip-Hop Rhymes Helps Pupils Learn Their Primes." Boston Sunday Globe (February 17, 2002):G5. Describes Roxbury's Tobin School's efforts to teach math using a hip-hop beat.

Bloom, Julie. "Wayne Frost, Pioneering Break Dancer, Dies at 44." The New York Times (April 4, 2008):C11. A.k.a. "Frosty Freeze, " his appearance on the movie Flashance introduced breakdancing to the world.

Blount, Erika. "Fever in the Funk House: One of Hip-Hop's Top Jocks Ignites a Racial Flurry." The Source: The Magazine of Hip-Hop Music, Culture and Politics 78 (March 1996):30.

Blum, Joseph. "Troop: 'The Rap Attack: African Jive to New York Hip Hop.'" Ethnomusicology (Spring-Summer 1986):340.

Bradley, O. "Commentary: Hip-hop generation: American as apple pie." Billboard 107 (November 18, 1995):9.

Bronson, Fred. "The Year in Charts." Billboard (December, 28 2002) Year in Music 2002: YE-6, YE-8, YE-10, YE-12, YE-61, YE-69, YE-76, YE-78, YE-80-YE-82.

Brukner, D.J.R. "Sailing Poetically Into the Hip-Hop Paradox." The New York Times (28 July 2000):B3. Review of Surface Transit by Sarah Jones.

Caramancia, Jon. "Do the Jerk: Skinny Jeans and All That Bouncy, Baudy Id." The New York Times (September 21, 2009): C7. Review of New Boyz' Promenade concert in New York City. While their "style is distinctly au courant, much of their sound dates to mid-1980s California, recalling both Los Angeles's post-electro adn Oakland's slow-and low car funk."

________. "Facing Time with Plenty of Swagger." The New York Times (October 2, 2008): B1, 7. Review of T.I.'s Highline Ballroom concert featuring songs from his new "Paper Trail" release, which is more "serious" after Bureau of Alcohol, Firearms and Tocabbo arrest on weapons charges.________. "Foxy Brown." The New York Times (May 12, 2008): B3. Since "the vocals were recorded before jail & its release was timed to hers" Ms. Brown's new CD does not include any materal drawn from her recent 40-day stay in solitary confinement at the Rose M. Singer Center in Riker's Islandfor probation violation "The production is bargain bin and lyrically, she sounds leaden."

________. "Two Opposites Onstage: A Tale of Hip-Hop's Reigning Kingpins." The New York Times (October 30, 2008):C5. New Jersey's Izod Center performance by Jay-Z and Lil Wayne "spotlighted how differently hip-hop's two reigning kingpins treat their fame. . . Lil Wayne . . . failed to hold up his end of the bargain."

Capital D. "Chicago Mourns Loss of Hip-Hop Figure." The Source: The Magazine of Hip-Hop Music, Culture and Politics 89 (February 1997):20.

Capoblanco, Ken. "Hip-hop comes together." The Boston Globe (May 25, 2007): D16, D17. Boston's First Annual Hip-hop Unity Fest seeks to unify Boston's fragmented hip-hop scene.

Caramanica, Jon. "The Comforts of Hip-Hop Past, With Pals and Collaborators Along for the Ride ." The New York Times (August 5, 2008): B5. Review of "Rock the Bells" festival at the Nikon at Jones Beach. Featuring groups that had not, for the most part "been a regular on rap radio in recent memory, this concert "thrilled with old comforts."

________. "Hip-Hop's Raiders Of the Lost Archives." The New York Times (June 26, 2005): AR28-29. DJ Ivory's 2001 release of "Hear No Evil," a trackless mix tape, begins a tradition of "random rap," that draws attention, "through mix tapes, articles and websites," of older artists previously "shunned - or completely ignored."

________. "The Mining of Hip-Hop's Golden Age ." The New York Times (September 14, 2008): AR24. Cool Kids, along with groups like Pacific Division, the Knux, and Kidz in the Hall, form "a generation of artists raised wholly within hip-hop culture" who create "meta-rap" or "music that is a comentary on what came before . . . "

Carr, T. "Talk that talk, walk that walk (hip hop)." Rolling Stone (May 26, 1983):18-19+.

Catsoulis, Jeannett. "The Hip Hop Project." The New York Times (May 11, 20907): B10. Brief review of Matt Ruskin's documentary of the inner-city program run by Chriss Rolle.

Catucci, Nick. "Beef, Not Bacon." The Village Voice December 4-10, 2002):68. Review of DJ Quik's "The Best of DJ Quik: Da Finale."

Caudeiron, D. "Can con hip hop (also in French)." Canadian Composer, 245 (Nov. 1989):30-35.

Century, Douglas. "In hip-hop, Unitas and Chamberlain live again." The New York Times (January 5, 2003) Section 9: 1,2. Explores collection by hip-hop artists of "throwbacks" - replica sport jerseys.

_____. "Seen the Opera? Experience the Hip-Hop." The New York Times (May 6, 2001):????. A review of "Carmen: A Hip Hopera."

_____. "Welcome to Alpine NJ." The New York Times (February 11, 2007) Section 2: 1, 33. Eighteen years after hip-hop producer moved there, hip-hop "comes to Bergen county in full force."

Chambers, G. "1993: the year in review; hip-hop--the great rap/jazz crossover." Musician n182 (December, 1993):62-5. Illustrated.

Chinen, Nate. "Chamillionaire: Mixtape Messiah 3." The New York Times (July 23, 2007): B7. Review of "loquacious Houston rapper" Chamillionaire's most recent mixtape, available at http://chamillionaire.com (as of 20.October.2007).

_____. "From James Brown to Dylan, Expansive Hip-hop." The New York Times (March 13, 2007): B5. Review of "jam-happy" performance at Nokia Theater by Roots, "hip-hop's best working band."

_____. "Giving the Hometown Fans a Dose of Classic Hometown Hip-hop." The New York Times (August 10, 2007): B14. Review of Beastie Boys Central Park performance.

_____. "A Hip-hop Duo's Message: Let Peace and Love Triumph." The New York Times (October 16, 2008):C9. Review of Minneapolis' Slug and Ant's duo Atmosphere's performance at the Fillmore New York.

_____. "Mos Def." The New York Times (January 8, 2007): B3. Review of Mr. Def's new hip-hop CD in which "boredom seems to guide this bleary hangover of an album."

_____. "Q Tip." The New York Times (November 3, 2008): C4. Review of Q Tip's new CD "The Renaissance" on which "he took a hands-on role as producer" of a compilation that both disappoints and "elicits inventive work from musicians."

Coker, Cheo Hodari and Jon Shecter. "Hip-Hop Report: Singled Out." Pulse 150 (July 1996):58-59, 85.

Coleman, Lauren. "Virtual Swapmeet: Hip-Hop Continues to Explode on the Internet." The Source: The Magazine of Hip-Hop Music, Culture and Politics 80 (May 1996):26.

Cooper, C. "Music: The house that rap built (hip-house)." The Village Voice 35 (May 15, 1990):83+.

_____. "Music: Turn the beat around (Latin hip-hop)." The Village Voice 33 (February 9, 1988):81-84.

Cougoule, Odile. "Air du temps: la danse hip hop se professionnalise : quand la rue entre en scene." Danser, 126 (October, 1994):24-25, 27. Illustrated.

_____. Questions a Christine Coudun, specialiste de hip hop. Danser. Paris 155 (May 1997).

Cummings, Cassandra. "Music of Displacement." The Harvard Crimson (October 19, 2001):B-2. A review of ARCO Forum lecture by Harvard University Fletcher Professor, Cornel West.

Cummings, Tony. "U.K. Christian Releases Praise God in Hymns, Hip-Hop and Sanctified Dance." Billboard: The International Newsweekly of Music, Video and Home Entertainment 108:17 (27 April 1996):34, 38.

Dauphin, Gary. "MTV Giveth, MTV Taketh Away: Where is Hip-Hop Headed on the World's Most Influential Music Channel?" The Source: The Magazine of Hip-Hop Music, Culture and Politics 90 (March 1997):33.

Davis, Eisa. “Hip-hop Theatre: The New Underground.” The Source: The Magazine of Hip-Hop Music, Culture and Politics March, 2000.

Davis, Joyce E. "Tech: Nothin' But Net--Hip Hop in Cyberspace." VIBE 5 (March 1997):130.

Deggans, Eric. "The Drummers of Hip-Hop." Modern Drummer 20:4 (April 1996):62-66, 68, 70, 72-73, 75, 77, 78, 80, 82.

Dery, M. "Fresh licks: guitar finds a funky home in hip hop." Guitar Player 26 (October, 1992):96-103.

Dibbell, J. "Rio hip hop." Spin 4 (December, 1988):26. Illustrated.

_____. "Rockbeat: Hip-hop wars, chapter one (Vibe magazine's editor in chief Jonathan Van Meter resigns). The Village Voice 39 (May 10, 1994):81.

_____. "Rockbeat: Hip-hop wars, part deux (The Source's first annual hip-hop awards show)." The Village Voice 39 (May 10, 1994):81.

Diehl, Matt. "Brash Hip-Hop Entrepreneurs." The New York Times 142:50635 (8 December 1996), sec 2:34.

Dimitriadis, Greg. "Hip Hop: From Live Performance to Mediated Narrative." Popular Music 15:2 (May 1996):179-194.

Dreisinger, Baz. "B-Boys and B-Girls." The New York Times Book Review (March 23, 2008):26. Review of Marcus Reeves' "eminently readable and occasionally riveting" Somebody Scream!.

Dunning, Jennifer. "Bringing Clasical Art a Hip-Hop Influence." The New York Times (11 June 2001):B1, B5. A review of a Dance Theater of Harlem performance at the Apollo Theater in Harlem.

_____. "He's taking Aeschylus Hip-Hop ." The New York Times (10 February 2006):B1, B2. Reporting on Rap actor and playwrite Will Power's "The Seven," a hip-hop adaptation of Aeschylus's "Seven Against Thebes."

_____. "Time to hop, in a lindy kind of way." The New York Times (16 May 2002):B7.

Eliscu, Jenny. "Police Believe Run-DMC DJ Killed Over Money." Rolling Stone (December 12, 2002):17-18.

Endelman, Michael. "Scratching without vinyl: a hip-hop revolution." New York Times (Dec. 3, 2002):B4. Examines use of newly-improved digital turn tables by some hip-hop artists.

_____. "Turntable U? In D.J.'s hands, professor sees instrument." New York Times (Feb. 11, 2003):B1,4. Explores Berklee College of Music's considering teaching turntablism.

Feldman, Jeff W. "Lil' Wayne ft. Static Major: 'Lollipop' dir. Gil Green". The Harvard Crimson (April 11, 2008: B4. Review of Lil' Wayne's video for the Lollipop CD. "Let's just hope that hen the lollipops are gone, Lil' Wayne will stop sucking."

Finn, Robin. "Rock-a-Bye Baby, With Some Hip-Hop." The New York Times (December 11, 2002):A32. Covers Daniel A. Cohen's production of "Bust a Nursery Rhyme," a CD that contains traditional nursery rhymes to a G-rated hip-hop beat.

Forero, Juan. "For Columbia's Angry Youth, Hip-Hop Keeps It Real." The New York Times (April 16, 2004):A4. Describes hip-hop's growing popularity in Columbia. Reflecting on "a world filled with Marxist rebels, right wing death squads and poverty", Columbia's groups tout its "real" nature, untained by the perceived sell-out of U.S. groups for recording contracts.

Frere-Jones, Sasha. "Hip-Hop Is a Guest At the Indian Wedding." The New York Times (August 3, 2003):AR23, 29. Panjabi MC and Jay-Z's hit "Beware of the Boys (Mundian to Back Ke)" bringing together the hip-hop nation and the Indian diaspora.

Frith, S. "Britbeat: Police & thieves (Hip-hop culture blamed for U.K. crime). The Village Voice. 33 (June 14, 1988):81.

Fuchs, A. "Commentary: What's in a hip-hop drum beat?." Billboard 104 (May 23, 1992):4.

George, Nelson. "Music: It's a hip hop thing (New Music Seminar)." The Village Voice 35 (July 31, 1990):75+.

_____. "Music: Ladies first (black women buying R&B music; hip-hop rejected as sexist." The Village Voice 38 (May 11, 1993):69+.

_____. "Native son: Corny versus horny (hip-hop vs. African American culture)." The Village Voice 38 (September 21, 1993):18.

_____. "The rhythm & the blues: an entertaining cinematic view of the hip-hop scene (film: Krush Groove)." Billboard 97 (October 26, 1985):53.

_____. "The rhythm & the blues: Hip-hop keeps hopping via records, concerts, film." Billboard 97 (September 7, 1985):46.

_____. "The rhythm and the blues: Child of hip-hop in search of jams; an African-American in Paris hits the Megastore." Billboard 105 (May 22, 1993):25+. Speech.

_____. et al. Fresh: hip-hop don't stop. NY: Random House, 1986.

_____. "The Rhythm and the Blues: Hip-Hop Keeps Hopping Via Records, Concerts, Film." Billboard 97 (September 7, 1985):46.

Gierach, Ryan. "Homiesexual hip-hop rears it's (sic) friendly head." Genre Magazine, July 2001. (Reference found at http://www.deep-dickollective.com/press.html. No pagination listed. Discusses queer hiphop , homophobia and consequences of racism in queer communities.

Goldstein, Meredith. Straight outta Hyde Park." The Boston Globe (June 5, 2006: B7, 12). Boston indepenent rap producer Ned Wellbery "determined to make hip-hop a force in Boston's music scene.

Gonzalez, David. "Will Gentrification Spoil the Birthplace of Hip-Hop?" The New York Times (May 21, 2007): A17. Hip-hop pioneers like Clive Campbell (a.k.a. D.J. Kool Herc) seek landmark status for West Bronx building, 1520 Sedgwick Avenue, where hip-hop started.

Gladstone, Valerie. "A New Way To Make Dance Speak Hip-Hop." The New York Times (May 11, 2003):AR: 9. Rennie Harris' efforts to "show that hip-hop could sustain the narrative of a full-evening work" by combining hip-hop elements with other dance traditions.

Goodman, F. "Cross-promotion targets Hip Hop book, record." Billboard, 96 (December 1, 1984):82.

Graham, Renée. "It's No Hip-hop Hotbed, but Boston's beat goes on." The Boston Globe (December 12. 2003):E1, 10.

_____. "Rhyming under the radar." The Boston Globe (June 18, 2004):D14, 18. Discusses documentary Boston Beats and Rhymes, a documentary that "examines the history of Bosotn hip-hop from such early artists as Scientifik and Almighty RSO through the current roster of local legends, including Mr. Lif, Akrobatik, and Esoteric."

Greene, Kelly and Rick Brooks. "Bored by Oom-pah, High-School Bands March to Hip-Hop." The Wall Street Journal (April 18, 2003):A1, A3. Marching bands have been expanding their memberships and outside interest by playing hip-hop and blues, and high-step marching and dance.

Griffin, G. "Confab hip to evolution of hip-hop, offers African-American view of genre (Howard University conference, Hip-Hop at Its Crossroads: Seizing the Cultural Initiative). Billboard, 103 (March 16, 1991):22+.

_____. "Conference gets down to the business of hip-hop." Billboard 104 (19 March, 1992):19.

Gurgen, Sara. "Hip-Hop, 'Prince Ital Joe -- The True Rasta Reggae Rapper'" Reggae Report 14:3 (1996):38.

_____. "Hip-Hop: The Unique Sound of Poppa Bear Kool Breeze." Reggae Report 14:5 (1996):38.

Hager, S. "Herculords at the Helvalo." (Excerpt from the book Hip Hop: the Illustrated History of Break Dancing, Rap Music and Graffiti). Record, 4 (February 1985):32-7.

_____. "Herculords at the Hevalo." Record. (February 1985):32-37.

Hahn, Thomas. "Hip hop is the best education in citizenship." Ballett international/Tanz aktuell, August 1996, pp. 46-51.

Halasa, M. "London calling: Brit hip-hop heats up." Cash Box 52 (May 27, 1989):12+.

Hall, Rashaun. "Jam Master Jay, 1965-2002." Billboard (December 7, 2002):52. Obituary of Jam Master Jay (Jason Mizell), founding member of Run-D.M.C. and important figure in the development of hip-hop.

_____. "'Loyalty' Finds Fat Joe Juggling Crossover Success, Credibility." Billboard (December 14, 2002):10. Explores Atlantic Records attempts to bring hip-hop artist Fat Joe to a wider audience.

_____. "Swizz Beatz Makes Solo Debut."Billboard (December 7, 2002):43.

Harrington, Richard. "On the Beat: Badu's Hip-Hop Holiday." The Washington Post 69 (12 February 1997):D7.

Heffernan, Virginia. "Key, Kis, a Hip-Hop Star Has Savvy Advice for You." The New York Times (November 2, 2006): B10. OutKast member Benjamin's Cartoon Network show, "Class of 3000." The characters "bop around geting into scrapes that require musical skills to get out of." The show combines "funk and crunk and every other style" of music.

Hempel, Christoph." Bibliothek: Das Dancefloor-Buch -- Computermusik housegemacht , mit CD und Diskette von Thomas Alker; Rap, Hiphop & Dance Grooves, Buch und Diskette von Eric Babak. ** Library: The Dance Floor Book -- Computer Music Homemade, with CD and Diskette by Thomas Alker; Rap, Hip Hop & Dance Grooves, Book and Diskette by Eric Babak. Musik & Bildung: Praxis Musikerziehung 28:1 (January-February 1996):64-65.

Herborn, P. "Fusion: Jazz, Rap & Hiphop." Musik & Bildung 26 (January-February 1994):17-19.

Hermes, Will. "All Rise the National Anthem of Hip-Hop." The New York Times (Oct. 29, 2006) Arts & Leisure: 28. CD release of Incredible Bongo Band's 1972 "Bongo Rock," produced by Michael Viner. It began as a movie soundtrack and "Apache," one of the cuts, became the national anthem of hip-hop.

Herrera, Jonathan. "Quite Sane: Anthony Tidd - High-Minded Hip-Hop." Bass Player (December, 2002):16. Hip-hop bassist discusses Quite Sane's album "The Child of Troubled Times."

Herz, J.C. "The Japanese embrace Hip-Hop, and Parappa is born." The New York Times (March 12, 1998), E4.

Hoge, Warren. "400 Years Later, Play Goes Hip-Hop." The New York Times (May 29, 2003):B1, B5. Rogers & Hart's The Boys From Syracuse, a reworking of Shalespar's Comedy of Errors, gets a hip-hop treatment at the Theater Royal, Stratford East in London.

Holden, Stephen. "When Kung-fu overcomes chest-beating hip-hop." The New York Times (Feb. 28, 2003):B17. Review of Jet Li's action movie Cradle 2 the Grave that also stars rapper DMX.

Holloway, Lynette. "The Angry Appeal of Eminem Is Cutting Across Racial Lines." The New York Times (Oct. 28, 2002):C1, C4. Explores success of white Hip-Hop artist, Eminem.

_____. "Rap Mogul Jumps Into Film, Totally." The New York Times (May. 8, 2003):B1, B6. Damon Dash seeks to lighten hip-hop's image with a comedy film over which he has total production control.

Iorio, Paul. "The Force M.D.'s Chill-Out the Hip-Hop Doo Wop Way." Cash Box. XLIX 37 (March 1,1986):13. Illustrated, interview with T.C.D.

Isherwood, Charles. "Hip-Hop Coming of Age For Suburban Prince Hal." The New York Times (October 16, 2008):C1, C5. Matt Sax's musical "about a white boy from Westchester" is "warmly received at the Edinburgh Festival Fringe and in Chicago and Los Angeles" is in its Lincoln Center debut.

Iverem, Esther. "A Less Flip Side: The Spiritual Anthems of Hip-Hop." The Washington Post (September 29, 1996):G1, G8-G9.

_____. "The Fugees' Alien Ideas: Hip-Hop Band Prefers Social Awareness to Gangsta Posturing." The Washington Post 131 (April 14, 1996):G4.

Jeffrey, Don. "Zoo Acquired by Start-Up Volcano; Firm Also Launches Hip-Hop Imprint." Billboard: The International Newsweekly of Music, Video and Home Entertainment (August 24, 1996):6, 127.

James, Caryn. "Yo, Carmen Is the Name, And a Class Act Is Her Game." New York times (May 8, 2001):B1-B2. A review of MTV's "Hip Hopera: Carmen."

Jefferson, Margo. "Blackface Master Echoes in Hip-Hop." The New York Times (October 13, 2004): E1. Archeophone, a company dedicated to preserving early American popular music, releases a 3 CD set of Bert Williams, a vaudeville performer. Performing in blackface, his signature song "Nobody" foretells hip-hop's "ethnic vaudeville" in its use of word play and sprechstimme.

Jeske, L. "Jazz: The marriage of jazz and hip-hop." Billboard 105 (3 July 1993):J10+.

Jones, A. et al. "87 review (November): hip-hop & Public Enemy." Melody Maker 63 (19-26 December 1987):48.

Jones, Vanessa E. "Digital DJs." The Boston Globe (08/29/2007): E1, E2. Hip-hop bloggers post mp3 files of songs before their official release. The record industry has mixed feelings.

________. "One issue after another." The Boston Globe (Nov. 28, 2006): C1, C4. After being forced out of editorship of The Source, the hip-hop monthly they founded, David Mays and Ray "Benzino" Scott have started Hip-hop Weekly, described by the Globe as "hip-hop meets People" magazine.

Jones, Alec. "Snoop Dog: Ego Trippin" The Harvard Crimson (March 14, 2008):B4. "Long Beach's Renaissance man"'s new album is for "lovers of the new-age Snoop Dog."

Kean, Kirby. "Tradin' Fours: Lessons Borrowed from Hip-Hop." Down Beat: Jazz, Blues & Beyond 64:2 (February 1997):39.

Kehr, David. "A Hip-Hop Dance Team Duels Some Meanacing White Boys." The New York Times (Jan. 30, 2004):B11. Review of writer and director Christopher B. Stokes' film You got serverd.

_____. "The Hip-Hop Path Across Class Borders." The New York Times (Nov. 10, 2002):AR15. Discusses the move "8 Mile" in which hip-hop artists Eminem portrays struggle of what rapper to gain acceptance in the hip-hop world.

Kelley, Margie. "Carter helps bring archive alive." The Harvard Community Resource (January, 2009): 5. Interview with Alvin Benjamin Carter, probram coordinator for Harvard's W.E.B. Du Bois Institute's Hip-Hop Archive.

Kennedy, L. "Theater: Where's the Noise? (hip hop in Bring in 'da Noise, Bring in 'da Funk and Jam on the Groove). The Village Voice 40 (December 5, 1995):79-80. Illustrated

Kisselgoff, Anna. "Dancers dare to innovate with protest and hip-hop."  The New York Times (18 September 1999):B1, B5.

_____. "Estonian Home Boys: Populist Europe Makes Room for Hip-Hop Heritage." The New York Times (22.Sept.2004):B3. The Lyon Dance Biennial, one of the world's leading dance festivals opens its celebration with an evening of break dancing.

_____. "Hip-hop head-spinning with a French twist." The New York Times (16 May 2002):B1,7. Review of Mourad Merzouki's hip-hop dance troupe Compagnie Käfig's Joyce Theater concert on 14 May 2002, sponsored by Dance Theater Workshop. The company uses break dancing moves to make "abstract allegories about art and society that are a marvel of space and shape. Music by Franck II Louise and Noël Kaye.

Kilgannon, Corey. "The Hip-Hop Beat Reverberates in a Silent World as Students Stage a Musical." The New York Times (March 29, 2007); C13. Students at Lexington School for the Dear perform a hip-hop musical.

________. "Putting Together a Hamburger, a Neighborhood and Hop-Hop." The New York Times (February 20, 2009); A20. For the price of a burger, Queens restaurant Hollis Famous Burgers provides access to collection of Hollis memorabelia from "local rap legends" like Ja Rule, LL Cool J and Irv Gotti, who founded Murder, Inc., the lable that "launched several careers."

Kleinfield, N. R. "Guarding the Borders Of the Hip-Hop Nation." The New York Times (July 6, 2000):National Desk. An article in the Times' "How Race is Lived in America." Explores how white money supports hip-hop media.

Kogan, F. "Music: kinda gaudy (Latin hip hop)." The Village Voice 36 (September 10, 1991):80.

Kourlas, Gia. "Cupid's Arrows and Southern Hip-Hop Beats." The New York Times (April 5, 2007): B3. Review of Ballet Memphis' performance at New York's Joyce Theater, which included Thaddeus Davis's "Mercurial Balance," inspired by Mephis' hip-hop scene.

________. "Personal Stories, Hipped and Hopped." The New York Times (September 21, 2009): C7. Review of Los Angeles' Groovaloos' performance at the Joyce Theater where the choreography failed to put the dancers to "a real test."

________. "Swaying Flames, Thai Steps and a Hop-Hop Parody." The New York Times (September 19, 2008): B3. Review of the New York City Center's 2008 Fall for Dance Festival where "Julian Barnett . . . showed his comic flair in a parody of a hip-hop dancer to Unk's 'Walk It Out'."

________. "Worlds Within the World of Balmy Central Park." The New York Times (July 14, 2008): B3. Review of Rennie Harris Puremovement and the Francesca Harper Project Central Park concert. Mr. Harris uses "virtuosic footwork, . . . marvelous undulations of the hips, and . . . intricate patterns" to "see the roots of hip-hop and not just the commercial veneer." Ms. Harper's works, on the other hand, "deconstruct ballet in an obvious way" that "seems pretentions and incoherent" at the same time.

Kozinn, Allan. "Classical Sampling of the Turntable Arts." The New York Times (July 18, 2000):B5. A review of "The Turntable as Ensemble Instrument" at the Lincoln Center Festival 2000.

_____. "Composers Inspired by Hip-Hop." The New York Times (August 25, 2000):B3. Daniel Bernard Roumain, "hip-hop-embracing assistant composer" of the Orchestra at St. Luke's has created a Young Composer Program, a year-long study program to work with teenagers & "early-20s" composers. A recent concert included Mr. Roumain's "Hip-Hop Study and Etude in c#" and other pieces for classical ensembles playing hip-hop-influenced compositions.

_____. "This is Really Longhair, And the Violin is Cool." The New York Times (January 2, 2005) Section 2: 32, 37. Inspired by rock, soul, hip-hop and classical music Daniel Bernard Roumain performs his "Hip-Hop Studies and Études" at Joe's Pub to build community and document the human experience with this music.

La Rocco, Claudia. "B-Boys of the Bronx, Dancing in the Streets." The New York Times (December 2, 2007): AR10). Break dancers, long a fixture of the New York Pulbic Library's main branch, are honored at the South Bronx Branch at a break battle of several long-time participants, male and female, on December 5, 2007.

_____. "No Yodeling: This Lonely Goatherd Likes Hip-Hop." The New York Times (December 14, 2007): B27). Doug Elkins' &aumlaout;ulein Maria at Joe's Pub includes "The Lonely Goatherd" as a hip-hop dance number.

_____. "Pirouettes and Street Cred: Atlanta's Hip-Hop Ballet." The New York Times (April 6, 2008): AR27). "Subway Entertainment Crew" performs breakdancing daily on New York's subways.

_____. "Talk About Underground Movement" The New York Times (October 12, 2008): AR1, 31). In an attempt "to expand the horizons of their respective forms" the Atlanta Ballet and rapper Antwan Patton (a.k.a. Big Boi) collaborate on big, "the first major collaboration between a hip-hop illuminary and a ballet company."

Leach, Andrew. "'One Day It'll All Make Sense': Hip-hop and Rap Resources for Music Librarians. Notes vol. 65 no. 1 (2008): 9-37. An excellent bibliographic essay including sections on definition and overview, historical and biographical information, articles and databases and more.

Lee, Denny. "DRIVING; The Dub Generation: Gearheads Go Hip-Hop". The New York Times (April 23, 2004): D1, D9. "What Slam is to basketball or Playboy was to a certain type of 1970's man, Dub is to drivers who like their cars loud, flashy and tricked out with clunky chrome wheels."

Leeds, Jeff. "Don't Believe the Hype. A Hip-Hop Mogul Says It's Propaganda." The New York Times (May 16, 2005): C1, C4. Russell Simmons, co-founder of Def Jam Records hyped sales figures of his clothing line, Phat Farm, by $336 million before it was bought by the Kellwood Company.

________. "Bridging Hip-Hop Consumers and Suits." The New York Times (22.Sept.2004):B1, Bb8. DJ Steve Stoute serves as point of entry to hip-hop world for major corporations liike Hewlett Packard.

Leblanc, Larry. "Canada's Raggadeath on the Rise: Attic Act Fuses Hip-Hop, Rap, and Metal." Billboard 16 (April 19, 1997):64.

Leeds, Jeff. "A Money Scandal That's Rocking the Hop-Hop World." The New York Times (August 7, 2005) Section 3: 1, 7. Money manger, Gabriele T. Smith is accused of stealing more than $3 million from her clienrs, some of the highest rollers in the hip-hop industry.

Levy, J. "Music: Taking Cypress Hill (by strategy)(hip-hop and art rock table of equivalencies.) The Village Voice (May 10, 1994):67+.

Levy, Joe A. "Hip Hop for Beginners: DJ Jazzy Jeff and the Fresh Prince Get Stupid." Spin. 4 (October 1988):44-46.

Light, A. "New faces 1991: De La Soul (hip-hop)." Rolling Stone (April 18, 1991):57-9+.

_____. "Rolling Stone: the interviews--Ice T (rap; hip-hop)." Rolling Stone (October 15, 1992):162-4.

Lorrell, Elyse. "Why Parents Don't Like Rap." Serious Hip Hop 1 (May-June 1990):15. Illustrated.

Lucas, Caryl. "Hip-Hop Stylee: The Fashion World Looks to Hip-Hop For New Blood." The Source: The Magazine of Hip-Hop Music, Culture and Politics 81 (June 1996):19-20.

Mack, Bob. "Hip-Hop Map of America." Spin 6 (June 1990):36-37. Map with labels.

Mack, Greg. "Commentary: Hip-Hop Community Must Rally for Radio--Without Industry Support, Genre's Future in Danger." Billboard 109: 18 (3 May 1997):4.

Mapp, B. "Music: Bad Manners (hip-hop compilation: NYC Badmen). The Village Voice (August 24, 1993):82.

Marans, M. "Sound design: Creating hip-hop loops, part II: manipulating tempo & pitch." Keyboard 17 (June, 1991):110+.

_____. "Sound design: Creating hip-hop loops--part I: tempo analysis." Keyboard 17 (May, 1991):102+.

McAdams, J. "The rhythm and the blues: NMS panels turn sharp eye on the hip-hop tip." Billboard 103 (August 3, 1991):19.

McArthur, Jeremy. "Hip-hop & Musicals: Made for each other?" The New York Times (June 8, 2003):AR5, 8.

McCormick, Moira. "Loud/RCA All-Star Hip-Hop Album Is 'All That.'" Billboard: The International Newsweekly of Music, Video and Home Entertainment 108:51 (21 December 1996):49.

Miller, Katherine L. "Cadence Weapon: Afterparty Babies." The Harvard Crimson (March 14, 2008):B4. Review of Canadian DJ Rollie Pemberton's (a.k.a. Cadence Weapon) second album, After Party Babies that "demonstrates his talent for layering multiple beats and lyrics with wit and assurance."

Mitchell, Elvis. "The Rapper's Life on the Hip-Hop Road: Attitude, Revelry and Togetherness." The New York Times (September 6, 2000):B5. A review of Backstage, a movie about a DMX tour.

Mitchell, Gail. "R&B/Hip-Hop, Rap: The Bright Lights in Rough Year." Billboard (December 28, 2002):31.

Mitchell, Gail and Patel, Minal. "Rap/Hip-Hop: Analysis: What the Charts Say." Billboard (December 7, 2002):47, 54.

Mitchell, Tony. "Questions of style: notes on Italian hip hop." Popular Music (October 1995):333-348.

Moon, Tom. "The Roots Roll Away from the Jazz-Hip-Hop Tree." Rolling Stone 748 (28 November 1996):44.

Mueller, R. "HipHop, Soul and Rapperinnen." Musik & Bildung 25 (May-June 1993):40-46. Bibliography, illustrated.

Mueller-Waldheim, G. "Hip Hop! Oder: Wie macht man einen Hit?" Musik & Bildung 24 (May-June 1992):37-42. Score.

Muther, Christopher. "Where the boys are: the Estate prospers with glamorous life's hip-hop dance party." The Boston Globe (December 6, 2007): D1, D8. Boston gay club the Estate's recent Thursday night the Glamorous Life provides hip-hop (and reggaeton and pop) hits for "a crowd more concerned with partying than pretense."

Natives. "Hip-Hop admen: Walk this way, shop this way." New York Times (August 9, 2004):C1, C7. Former hip-hop producers and performers turning "away from top 40 . . . toward Madison Avenue" creating full-service advertising agencies for the hip-hop world.

________. "Men's fitness Magazine Takes a Little Dig at Hip-Hop Celebrity." The New York Times (May 23, 2005): C6. Men's Fitness magazine uses buff, male hip-hop celebrities on its covers to boost sales.

Nelson, Havelock. "Rhythm & blues: Doo-wop hip-hop: the cult of vocal realness. Billboard 104 (June 27, 1992) R 104 (June 27, 1992):R3+.

_____. "Foxy Brown Takes Solo Turn: Hip-Hop Hits Propel Violator Debut." Billboard: The International Newsweekly of Music, Video and Home Entertainment 108 (23 November 1996):14, 19.

_____. "Irvine Has a Leg Up On Hip-Hop." Billboard: The International Newsweekly of Music, Video and Home Entertainment 108:36 (7 September 1996):61.

_____. "Reggae and Hip-Hop Come Together." Billboard: The International Newsweekly of Music, Video and Home Entertainment 108:27 (6 July 1996):40, 47.

_____. "The Rap Column: Don't Typecast Hip-Hop/Reggae Producer Remi." Billboard: The International Newsweekly of Music, Video and Home Entertainment 108:22 (1 June 1996):25, 28.

Newman, Andrew Adam. "Hip Hop Fresh Squeezed." The New York Times (July 31, 2005): Section 2, p. 2. Julian Hinz (a.k.a. Julz A) "rhymes while playing the accordion."

Newman, Melinda. "EMI-Capitol Purchases 50% of Rap, Hip-Hop Label Priority." Billboard: The International Newsweekly of Music, Video and Home Entertainment 108:47 (23 November 1996):10, 101.

Ogunnaike, Lola. "A Producer of Hip-Hop Gets Behind an Heiress." New York Times (16 January 2006):B1, 7. Producer Scott Storch, the "Meyer Lansky of hip-hop," and producer of hits by Beyoncé and Fat Joe, works with Paris Hilton on her debut CD.

________. "Break-dancing regains its footing." New York Times (June 7, 1998):Section 9, p. 1, 4.

________. "Hip-hop's One Man Ministry of Insults." The New York Times (May 4, 2003):Arts & Leisure: 1, 40. DJ Kay Slay, the "Jerry Springer of rap" has a rdio show where some of the great bettles of hip-hop have played out.

________, and Leeds, Jeff. "An Arbiter of Hip-hop Finds Itself as the Target." The New York Times (March 16, 2005):B1, B7. New York's radio station Hot 97's problems with bad publicity.

O'Mahoney, Terry. Review of Drummer's Guide to Hip Hop, House, New Jack Swing, Hip House, and Soca House, by Bill Elder. Percussive Notes 35 2 (April 1997):82.

Ogunnaike, Lola. "An Enterprising Rapper Looks Beyond Hip-Hop." The New York Times (April 12, 2006): B3. After a rock start, Atlanta's T.I. has an album (King) and a film (ATL) released in the same week.

Ojito, Mirta. "Can't pin him down." The New York Times (Dec. 3, 2006): Section 9, p. 4. A night out with Miami hip-hopper Pitbull (aka Armando Christian Pérez).

Oumano, Elena. "The Alternative to Alternative: Killing You Softly--The Fugees Prove Hip-Hop Can Be Alternative and Hardcore." Spin 12 (April 1996):68.

Owen, Frank. "Hip House." Spin 5 (December 26, 1989):26.

_____. "Music: All mixed up -- Street DJs bring live flava back to hip-hop." The Village Voice 39 (October 25, 1994):71+.

_____. "Singles (hip hop and house)." Spin 6 (July, 1990):90.

_____. "Hip Hop Bebop." Spin. 4 (October 1988):60-61ff.

_____."A Band's Move From Funk to Pop Takes in Hip-Hop too." The New York Times (Nov. 13, 2006):B7. 50-year-old Welshman Green Gartside, who writes Sritti Politti's songs, describes "the boom-bap hip-hop beat as 'the beat of my life'" in "The Boom Boom Bap" on their new album "White Bread Black Beer" (Nonesuch/Rough Trade) as heard in a concert at the Bowery Ballroom Nov. 10, 2006.

Pareles, Jon. "A Brazilian Mix: The Home Grown, Rock and Hip-Hop." The New York Times 145:50469 (25 June 1996):C16.

_____. "Ego-fueled Hip-Hop Sci-Fi Space Odyssey." The New York Times (May 15, 2008):B1. Review of Kanye West's Madison Square Garden concert was "the most daring arena spectacle hip-hop has yet produced".

_____. "Hip-hop Group Makes Rock History at Hall of Fame Show." The New York Times (March 13, 2007):C15. Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five briefly mentioned for their first-ever-for-a-hip-hop-group induction into the Rock & Roll Hall of Fame. Groups "are eligible twenty-five years after the release of their first recording."

_____. "A Hip-hop Performance Only a Band Can Deliver." The New York Times (Otober 30, 2008):C2. Roots' Roseland Ballroom performance "proud to flaunt . . . the kinds of dynamics and speed shifts" that "can't duplicated with a volume knob or a tempo control."

_____. "Mambo and Hip-Hop: Two Bronx Sounds, One Sense of Dignity." The New York Times (September 14, 1996): B2. Traces the development in the Bronx of Mambo, which appeared after WWII, and Hip-hop, that developed in the late 1970s.

_____. "Pop Review: Hip-Hop and Reggae with a Punjabi Twist." The New York Times (7 August 1996):C12.

_____. "Spicy Mix of Salsa, Hip-Hip and Reggae." The New York Times (7 August 2003):B1, B6. Review of concert by Tego Caledrón, who plays reggaeton, which is a combination of hip-hop and dancehall music from Puerto Rico. Regaeton began in club in Puerto Rico in the early 1990s.

Parker, Lonnae O'Neal. "Why I Gave Up On Hip-Hop." The Washington Post (October 15, 2006): B1.

Parket-Pope, Tara. "For clues to teenage sex, experts look to hip-hop." The New York Times(November 6, 2007): D6, D8. Study finds that exposure to degrading lyrics rather than sexual ones were more likely to lead to sex in teens.

Paulson, Kristen. "Breakin' Away: Hip-hop inspires a new wave of dancers." The Boston Globe (Calendar Section 25 January 2001):10-13.

Pereira, Al: Videos: "Make It Happen! In Hip-Hop and Rap." The Music Paper 34:8 (March 1996):12.

Pérez-Peña, Richard. "Hip-Hop Magazine No Longer Accepts Ads for Lewd Products." The New York Times (January 19, 2009): B7. After buyout by investors, The Source no longer accepts "booty ads" (for pornographic films or websites or for escort services) in an attempt to "make the sex in its pages . . . less explicit."

Poulson-Bryant, S. "All I Know (part 2) (hip-hop). Spin. 8: 72.

_____. "B-Boys and Buttheads (black establishment attack on hip-hop)." Rock and Rap Confidential 107 (June-July 1993):1-2.

Powers, Ann. "A Hip-Hop Master Invokes Cultural Dieties." New York Times (January 22, 2001):B1, 3.

Powers, Ann. "An Old Fugitive's Hideaway Warms a Hip-Hop Night." New York Times (July 15, 2000):B5. Review of concert at Anchorage, the performance space within the Brooklyn Bridge.

_____. "Salting Raps With Humor,m Mining Hip-Hop for Fun." New York Times (March 24, 2001):B5. Review of concert by Outkast at the Theater at Madison Square Garden.

Primack, B. "Jazz meets hip hop: Brave new world or musical purgatory?" Jazztimes 23 N 10 (1993):30+.

Raush, John R. Review of percussion literature and records, "Lime Juice" and "Some Uptown Hip-Hop" by Arthur Lipner, arranged by Ron Brough. Percussive Notes 34:5 (October 1996):77, 78.

Reynolds, J R. "R&B '95: Is hip-hop's growing dominance of R&B an evolutionary step, or is it displacing traditional soul music altogether?" Billboard 107 (June 3, 1995):23. Illustrated.

_____. "Camp Lo Brews Hip-Hop Nostalgia: Profile Act Benefits from Extensive Touring." Billboard: The International Newsweekly of Music, Video and Home Entertainment 108:50 (14 December, 1996):16, 20.

_____. "Hip-Hop Meets Aims for Unity: Topics Include Indie Labels, Lyrics About Women." Billboard: The International Newsweekly of Music, Video and Home Entertainment 108:45 (9 November 1996):19, 22.

Reynolds, S. "Nasty Boy (inner meanings of hip-hop)." Melody Maker 61 (19 July 1986):26.

Rhea, Shawn. "Hip-Hop Booms Online." The Source: The Magazine of Hip-Hop Music, Culture and Politics 90 (March 1997):34.

Richardson, Lynda. "The Unbearable Flashiness of Bling." The New York Times (July 22, 2004):A21. Mini interview with Erica Kennedy and a discussion of her first novel "Bling" that "plumbs the shallows of the hip-hop glitterati" and the conspicuous consumption thereof.

_____. "Turning heads (and pages) in the magazine world." The New York Times (17 May 2002):A23. Covers Emil Wilbekin, editor of, and the magazine's winning of the 2002 General Excellence award from the American Society of Magazine Editos. Rodriguez, Cindy. "Hip Hop at Harvard: Rap music conference to feature artists, activists."  Boston Globe  (30 April 99):B1, B4.

Rochlin, Margy. "From Queens to Hollywood, With Help From Dublin." The New York Times Holiday Movies (Nov. 6, 2005): 8, 30. 50 Cent (Curtis Jackson) is the leading man in Get Rich or Die Tryin'. This article covers his contretemps with the film's Irish director, Jim Sheridan as they worked on this "hip-hop Horatio Alger story."

Rohter, Larry. "Brazilian Government Invests in Culture of Hip-Hop." The New York Times (March 14, 2007): B7. "Culture Points," a government program, helps spread hip-hop culture across Brazil by helping students " improve their graffiti techinques," train them to use recording equipment, etc.

Rozhon, Tracie. "Can Urban Fashion Be Def in Des Moines?" The New York Times (August 24, 2003) Section 3: 1,9. Russell Simmons is trying to broaden sales of his hip-hop clothing line, Phat Fashions, by pitching it to department stores.

Rubin, M. "Exposure: Eazy does it (Slade and the origins of hip-hop slang)." Spin 11 (December 1995):40.

Rule, G. "Master class: Brain on hip-hop beats." Keyboard 18 (July 1992):37+.

Rutenberg, Jim."A New Vocabulary at Headline News." The New York Times (Oct. 7, 2002):C8. The article covers CNN Headline News' use of hip-hop phrases in its onscreen graphics and headlines.

St. Clair, Katy. "Straight Trippin': Queer Hip-Hop in O-Town." East Bay Express (Feb. 6, 2002). Founding of Deep Dickollective founders Juba Kalamka, aka Pointfivefag, met Tim'm T. West, aka 25Percenter.

Salamon, Julie. "Turning the Tables, the Establishment Takes On Hip-Hop." The New York Times (September 6, 2000):B1, 3. An article about a "Nightline" series, hosted by Robert Krulwich, on hip-hop.

Samburg, Bridget. "Outside looking in: Professor aware of his place in hip-hop culture." The Boston Globe (12 May 2002 City Weekly):9. Discusses Murray Forman's book The 'hood comes first: Race, space and place in Rap and Hip-hop, published by Wesleyan Press.

Sanneh, Kelefa. “50 Cent.” The New York Times (February 28, 2003):B30. Review of 50 Cent's Nassau Coliseum concert.

______. “51/50 Ratchet.” The New York Times (October 22, 2007):B3. Review of Hurricane Ratchet's major label debut that only hints at "the addictive album he might still write."

_____. “50 Cent, hip-hop's necessary nuisance.” The New York Times (February 3, 2003):AR27. Review of 50 Cent's debut CD, Get rich, or die tryin' (Shady/Interscope).

_____. "8Ball & MJG." "High-minded" hip-hop act releases "Ridin high" on Bad Boy/Atlantic Records. "Their rhymes continue a centuries-old tradition of African-American boasting and toasting."

_____.“Cracking the Code in Hip-Hop.” The New York Times (October 13, 2005):B1, B7. Use of "coded language" and images by hip-hop artists "to juggle multiple constituencies."

_____. "D J Clue." The New York Times (December 16, 2006): B3. Former mix tape master turned MTV star returns with a "gently nostalgic" disc celebrating an earlier hip-hop era.

_____.“From a Deft Trash-Talker, Old-Fashioned New York Hip-Hop.” The New York Times (February 6, 2006):B1, B7. Review of New York hip-hop artist Remy Ma's first solo CD "There's something about Remy." Ms. Sanneh also reviews Atlanta-based Dem Franchize Boyz' "snap music" CD "On Tio of Our Game."

_____. "Gangsta Gumbo." The New York Times (April 23, 2006) Section 2: 1, 26. Why are the country-wide concerts celebrating New Orlean's music in the wake of Hurricane Katrina ignoring the city's "thrilling — and wildly popular" hip-hop?

_____. “Hard-Boiled Hip-Hop Holds On To its Niche.” The New York Times (August 11, 2002):AR23. Review of Scarface's album The Fix (Def Jam South). "Spinning crime stories" with "bittersweet ballads" and a "sentimental piano line."

_____. “Hearing the Voices of Hip-Hop.” The New York Times (February 9, 2001):A27. Op-Ed piece about the Eminem controversy at the 2001 Grammy Awards.

_____. "Hip-Hop Conundrum: How Can a Pimp Be a Hero?" The New York Times (July 28, 2005): B1, B7. Craig Brewer's movie "Hustle & Flow" puts hip-hop's "most unsavory elements . . . front and center."

_____. “A Hip-hop Crew That Just Won't Quit.” The New York Times (June 2, 2005):B5. Hip-hop long-timers, New York's "Lox" (Jadakiss, Styles P, and Sheek Louch), back up Maria Carey's new release & tour, as well as releasing solo albums.

_____. “Hip-hop divides: Those who rap, those who don't.” The New York Times (December 22, 2002):AR39, 45. Is hip-hop culture or craft, open to anyone who is good at it? Contrasting Missy Elliot's de-emphasis of rap and Eminem's insistence on lyrical skill, etc.

_____. “Hip-hop's Grab Bags Get a moment of Glory.” The New York Times (January 12, 2004):B5. Overview of 8th Annual Mixed Tape Awards that focus on §gray-market¨ compilations of hip-hop groups.

_____. “Hip-Hop Hybrids That Scramble Traditions.” The New York Times (August 25, 2005):B5. Explores South Africa's kwaito and London's grime scene, examples of how hip-hop "goes underground, changing its name and modifying its identity" when it travels abroad. Specific mention made of South Africa's Spikiri and Brown Dash, and London's Kano.

_____. “Hurricane Chris.” The New York Times (August 20, 2007):B3. Review of "previously obscure" 18-year-old rapper's mixtape "Louisi-Animal" available online preliminarily to it's CD release.

_____. "If It's Grime, It Rhymes." New York Times (March 14, 2005):B5. London's "booming" Grime genre is a hip-hop offshoot. Review of D Double E, Ears & Jammer's shockingly ordinary concert at New York's club Rothko.

_____. "Impromptu Summit of Kinds in New York." The New York Times (August 24, 2007): B6. "Hip-hop royalty" T.I., Yung Joc, T-Pain, et al. at this year's Screamfest at Madison Square Gardens.

_____. "Imagining a Summer with a True Hip-Hop Hit." The New York Times (September 7, 2006): B1, B5. Camron's unreleased Weekend Girl contends with other no-completely-hip-hop tunes as summer 2006's biggest hits.

_____. "Jockeying for Position in Hip-Hop Firmament." New York Times (August 14, 2006): B5. Lloyd Banks' performance at the AllHipHop Week Grand Finale Concert.

_____. "Mixtapes Mix In Marketing." The New York Times (July 20, 2006): B1, B5. CD market declining overall, mixtape CDs of hip-hop music, which do not officially exist, "continue to be an essential part of the hip-hop industry."

_____. "On record. (hip-hop parody film: CB4)." Billboard 105 (March 27, 1993):40.

_____. "Pac's Life ". The New York Times (November 27, 2006): B2. Althought Tupac Shakur died in 1996, recordings still appear. In this one, "Shakur's precious verses are diluted by lots of semi-precious guest verses."

_____. "Prime Time Still Eludes Brawling Hip-Hop Awards." The New York Times (January 16, 2004):B3.

_____. "A Rocker's Rap Is a Hit, and the Rap World Shrugs." The New York Times (May 4, 2006): B5. Rap-rock band Linkin Park's Mike Shinoda's increaslingly popular "Where'd You Go" is much more likely to be played on pop or rock radio than hip-hop stations.

_____. "The Shrinking Market is Changing the Face of Hip-hop." The New York Times (December 30, 2007): AR1, 28. "[2007] was the year when the gleaming hip-hop machine . . . finally broke down" requiring hip-hop artists to work harder for smaller returns.

_____. "This Hip-hop Future Looks Like Yesterday." The New York Times (July 30, 2007): B1, B5. Zack De La Rocha, Rage Against the Machine's "lead rapper, and agitator and sermonizer" calls for President Bush's trial and execution at the group's concert on Randall's Island, part the Rock the Bells tour.

_____. "A Timeout From Hip-hop Tough Talk to Purr Come-Ons." The New York Times (March 3, 2005): B1, B8. A review of 50 Cent's CD "The Massacre" that "delivers threats and flirtations."

_____. "Trick Daddy." The New York Times (December 18, 2006): B3. Trick Daddy, who has been the sound of Miami hip-hop for years sounds "a bit irritabel" about his competition from the likes of Pitbull and Rick Ross.

_____.“Two Hip-Hop Pioneers, Still True to Form.” The New York Times (October 11, 2004):B1, B6. Twenty years on, L.L. Cool J and The Beastie Boys still selling records and packin' 'em in at concerts at Radio City Music Hall and Madison Square Gardens, respectively.

_____.“What's Left After Bling, Boasts and Odd Beats.” The New York Times (February 16, 2005):B6. Hip-hop review of Sage Francis' Bowery Ballroom performance.

son Square Gardens, respectively.

_____.“Young Jezzy.” The New York Times (December 11, 2006):B4. Once "one of the most exciting figures in hip-hop", Mr. Jeezy's new album, "The Inspiration" (Def Jam Records) "has lots of leftovers."

Sarig, Roni. "Retro Hollywood with a Hip-Hop Beat." The New York Times (June 18, 2006): AR19, AR21. OutKast's André Benjamin joins with music video director Bryan Barber in the director's first feature, "Idlewild", a musical set in the 1930s.

Schillinger, Liesl. "Popping, Locking and Healing Afterword." The New York Times(November 14, 2004):Section 2 , Page 8. Hip-hop dancer Suga Pop prepares for "Rennie Harris' Legends of Hip-Hop" at Broadway's New Victory Theater.

Schudack, Achim. "Musik und Identität, Identität und Ausdruck: Möglichkeiten der Hip-Hop Produktion im Musikunterricht ** Music and Identity, Identity and Expression: Opportunities of Hip-Hop Production in Music Education." Musik & Bildung: Praxis Musikerziehung 28:2 (March-April 1996):24-28.

Scott, A.O. "Odes to the Old Schools of Hip-Hop and the Blues." The New York Times (Nov. 12, 2004):B30. Review of the movies You see Me Laughin' directed by Mandy Stein, which explores the Blues, and 5 Sides of a Coin directed by Paul Kell, which outlines hip-hop's origins and subsequent spread to Europe, virtually ignoring developments in the U.S. South and West. Compareing the films' treatment of their various subjects could lead the viewer "to the improbable but oddly gratifying conclusion that hip-hop is, at the moment, squarer than the blues."

_____. "Violence and Sentiment Waging a Hip-Hop War." The New York Times (Sept. 20, 2002):B23. Review of the movie Snipes directed by Rich Murray.

Sexton, Adam, editor. "Recordings: Street Jams (hip-hop)." Rolling Stone n626 (March 19, 1992):93+.

Serinus, Jason. "All the 'flavas' of the rainbow. A hip-hop group has emerged out of San Francisco that seriously addresses GLBT issues." Bay Wondows Arts Section (May 3, 2001):33. A review of Rainbow Flava's CD "Digital Dope.".

Shapiro, Samantha M. "Hip-hop outlaw (industry version)." The New York Times (February 18, 2007) Section 6: pp. 28-33. The music industry hires and then helps arrest DJ Drama for making mix tapes.

Shepherd, Julianne. "Hip-Hop's Newest Faces: Indie, Fierce and Female." The New York Times (Janary 27, 2008): AR:30, 34. The topless performance of Jwl B. (a.k.a. Jewel Baynham), a member of lesbian Florida hop-hop duo Yo Magesty, in an effort to loosen up the "tight-collard, mostly male" crowd in New York, is indicative of young female hip-hop artists' efforts to gain attention in a "lackluster time for female rappers."

Sisario, Ben. "A master of X-rated hip-hop." The New York Times (September 30, 2001):Arts & Leisure, Section 2, 31. Article on Kool Kieth (Keith Thornton) and his album Spankmaster.

_____. "Hip-Hop from the Middle East comes to Brooklyn." The New York Times (July 8, 2004):B1, 5. A group of M.C.s perform in Prospect Park to promote peace and justice in the Holy Land.

_____. "An Itinerant Refugee in a Hip-Hop World." The New York Times (August 12, 2007):Arts & Leisure, 20-21. Maya Arulpragasam, a.ka. M.I.A., tries "to create a third space" between the developed and developing worlds with her new CD Kala that uses sounds "from India, Jamaica, Trinidad and Australia."

Smith, D. "Dreaming America: hip hop culture." Spin, 9 (March, 1994):83.

Smith, Dinitia. ""A Hip-hop Author in Search of a Publisher Finds One on the A Train." The New York Times (January 6, 2004):B1, B7.

_____. "QA: MC Lyte (hip-hop)." Rolling Stone n665 (September 17, 1993):17.

Smith, Shawnee. "Hip-Hop Culture Comes to the Internet." Billboard: The International Newsweekly of Music, Video and Home Entertainment 108:44 (2 November 1996):70.

Snyder, Marlynn. "Fame & Dreams, Blood & Schemes: A Philadelphia Murder Throws an Unwanted Spotlight on Hip-Hop." The Source: The Magazine of Hip-Hop Music, Culture and Politics 79 (April 1996):19.

Spady, James G. Selected Bibliography of Hip Hop Culture essays from Philadelphia New Observer weekly: 1988-1999. Kindly provided by Mr. Spady. All articles by James G. Spady on Hip Hop can be found in the Microfilm Collection, Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, New York Public Library.

________. "African American Music in the 21st Century." Philadelphia New Observer (June 12, 2002):A6.

________. "Back On Up: Conversations with Young Buck and D-Tay." Philadelphia New Observer (June 13, 200l):18. The essay examines the function of memory and a sense of place in the American South as expressed by Nashville, Tennessee rappers.

________. "Beanie Sigel, The Trial, Hip Hop Culture and the ROC of Geb El Tarikh." Philadelphia New Observer (May 5, 2004):14 .

________. "Caribbean Festival Returns to Old Penn's Landing for Big Celebration." Philadelphia New Observer (9/1/2004):11.

________. "The Centrality of Black Language in The Discourse Strategies and Poetic Force of Sonia Sanchez and Rap Artists." 360 Degreez of Sonia Sanchez, Hip Hop, Narrativity, Ighawe and Public Spaces of Being." BMa: The Sonia Sanchez Literary Review 6, No.l (Fall 2000):47-72. The article combines conversational analysis and literary assessments with close attention given to the central and centering role Black Language plays in the Poetry of Sonia Sanchez and Other Black Arts Movement Poets of the l960's and Rap Poets of the late 20th and early 21st Century. Sanchez discusses rap artists and the connection she feels toward them and Sanchez's father is in conversation on issues of identity, music and communal values in the Sanchez' life and work.

________. "The Changing Black Theology Project After King's Death." Philadelphia New Observer (1/15/03):A3, A19.

________. "Cheeda is Moving To The Rhythm of Her Own Life and Singing on Red Spyda's Rush Tracks." Philadelphia New Observer (6/25/03):18.

________. “Conversation with Africa's Pioneer Rap Group, Positive Black Soul.” Philadelphia New Observer (July 2, 2004):20-21.

________. "Conversation with Peedi PHI Crakk: Crown Prince of Tha Roc and Ice City's Hustla." Philadelphia New Observer (June 30, 2004):12.

________. "D.J. KAY Slay, Don of Street Conscious Hip Hop Cultural Contact Zones." Philadelphia New Observer (June 25, 2003):13.

________. "French Professor Desdemone Bardin Situates Hip Hop Culture In the Context of King, Civil Rights and The Black Power Movement." Philadelphia New Observer (January 15, 2003):12.

________. "Gateway To The Dirty Dirty: Rev. Elijah Strickland, Dr. Martin Luther King and Pastor Troy in Atlanta." Philadelphia New Observer (January 15, 2003):A1, A19.

________. “Hip Hop Entrepreneur Damon Dash In Conversation." Philadelphia New Observer (June 30 2004):13.

________. "Hip Hop Modes of Being Or the Interplay of the Personal, Public and Historica.l" Philadelphia New Observer (June12, 2002):A2.

________. "Hip Hop's Positionality and Perspective: Reality and Play in 1996." Philadelphia Music Conference Program Booklet (l996):14-15.

________. "Historic Hip Hop Summit Held At New York's Hilton Hotel." Philadelphia New Observer (June 27, 200l):23, 30.

________. "IMA Put My Thing Down: Afro American Expressive Culture and the Hip Hop Community," in TYANABA: Revue de la Societe d'Anthropologie (Decembre, l993):93-98.

________. “Interview with Didier J. Awadi or DJ Awadi of the Didier Awadi Syndicate and PBS Radkal, [African Rap and Hip Hop Community]." Philadelphia New Observer (June 30, 2004):14-15.

________. "Jah's Mystic Messenger Buju Banton Explores Dancehall Culture and The Meaning of Friends for Life." Philadelphia New Observer (April 2, 2003):20.

________. “Jeni Legon: Actress/Dancer? Singer From Minnie The Moocher to Bojangles Robinson and Snoop Dogg.” Philadelphia New Observer (July 21, 2004):9.

________. "Kingology, Thugology and Other Manifestatiions of African American Liberation Theology.” Philadelphia New Observer (January 9, 2002):12.

________. "Kool Herc and Philadelphia Music Conference 200l." Philadelphia New Observer (June 27, 200l):22, 29.

________. "Living in America Where The Brother Got To Get Esoterica: The Philly Hip Hop Language and Philosophy of Schooly D." Fourth Dimension 4, no. l (l994):26-27.

________. "Looplinking The Outlawz To The History of Mass Based Black Cultural Consciousness in the 21st Century." Black Arts Quarterly 6, no 1:34-35. Published by Stanford University's Committee on Black Performing Arts.

________. “Marita Golden Discusses Color Issues Before Rap Videos." Philadelphia New Observer (June 30, 2004):12.

________. "Memories Live: The Odyssey of Talib Kweli and Brooklyn Hip Hop Music Scene." Philadelphia New Observer (June 12, 2002):A1, A6.

________. "Moving In Silence: Motion, Movement and Music In A Hip Hop Centered Cultural Universe." Black Arts Quarterly 6, no. 2 (200l):28-31. (Published by Stanford University's Committee on Black Performing Arts.

________. "National Black Aesthetic (NBA) Community: Hip Hop Culture and Running Ball in Philly." Philly Word (February 2002):28-29.

________. "The Pharoahe of Hip Hop Poetics and Compound Internal Rhyme Tactics in Rap Music." Philadelphia New Observer (June 25, 2003):16.

________. "Raperos in Cuba and Puerto Rico." Philadelphia New Observer (June 25, 2003):18-19.

________. "The Reason Beanie Sigel Serving MCs Like Philly Hot Bean Pies." Philadelphia New Observer (June 13, 200l):15, 20. This essay explores the role living in Philly played in shaping aesthetic, social, cultural and religious values in Beanie Sigel decodes epistemological arguments embedded deeply in the song, "What You Really Know What A Thug About?" and Sigel's albums, "The Truth" and "The Reason."

________. “Rev. James Forbes Discusses The Issues.” Philadelphia New Observer (Oct. 27, 2004):5.

________. “Rick James: Singer, Composer, Producer and 21st Century Musiician Receives ASCAP'S Golden Note Award along with Jay Z." Philadelphia New Observer (6/30/04 ):11.

________. "St. Juste's Way of the Light: African American Culture Reflecting The Time." Philadelphia New Observer (9/22/03):11.

________. "Sociologist Dr. Raquel Z. Rivera Studies New York Ricans From The Hip Hop Zone." Philadelphia New Observer (March 12, 2003):13, 17.

________. "Suge Knight and the Ups and Downs of Death Row Records." Philadelphia New Observer (6/12/02):A4.

________. “Talib Kweli Mirrors Black History." Philadelphia New Observer (February 26, 2003):16.

________. “Thousands Attend Philly Hip Hop Summit." Philadelphia New Observer (8/20/03):17.

________. “Towards an Exploration of The Dynamic Presence of islam in Hip Hop Culture and African American History.” Philadelphia New Observer (Feb. 26, 2003):17.

________. "Tupac's Exile: The Black Night Longs For the Moon." Drumvoices Revue: A Confluence of Literary, Cultural & Vision Arts 6, Nos. 1&2 (Winter-Spring, l996):26-29.

________. "Two Entrepreneurs In The Cipha: Estebano Serrano and Bavu Blake." Philadelphia New Observer ( 9/11/2002):20.

Spady, James G., ed. 360 Degreez of Sonia Sanchez, Hip Hop, Narrativity, Iqhawe and Public Spaces of Being, BMa: The Sonia Sanchez Literary Review, 6.1, Fall 2000.

Sprague, David. "Soul Coughing Hack Out a Hearty Blend of Beat Poetry, Hip-Hop, and Art Rock." Rolling Stone 735 (30 May 1996):21, 23.

Stansfield, D. "The Billboard report: Italian house music yields to techno, hip-hop, reggae. Billboard. 104 (April 25, 1992):1+. Illustrated.

_____. "Born Jamerican (reggae influence in rap and hiphop)." Rock and Rap Confidential 112 (February 1994):1.

Staples, Brent. "The Hip-Hop Media — a World Where Crime Really Pays." The New York Times (June 8, 2005): A24. The Hip-hop media's glorification of artists who go to prison rather than cooperate with police to solve murders.

_____. "How Hip-Hop Music Lost Its Way and Betrayed Its Fans." The New York Times (May 12, 2005): A26. Editorial about hip-hop's gradual evolution "into a medium for worshipping misogyny, materialism and murder."

Stephney, B. "Fundamental hip-hop (rap vs. hip-hop)." Rock & Rap Confidential 85 (January-February 1991):1-2.

Strage, Fredrik. "Soul, Hip-Hop Emerges in Sweden." Billboard: The International Newsweekly of Music, Video and Home Entertainment 108:15 (13 April 1996):60.

Strauss, Neil. "Hip-hop Requiem Tupac Shakur is Mourned, His Legacy Mined." The New York Times (11 April 2001):B1, 3.

Strauss, Neil. "Pop Review: Hip-Hop Professor Gives His Own Take on History." The New York Times 145:50484 (10 July 1996):C12.

________. "The Pop Life: Hip-hop Battle." The New York Times (8 July 1998):B3.,/p>

Sullivan, James. "He wrote the book on hip-hop." The Boston Globe (June 12, 2007): E1, E7. Brian Coleman's Check the Technique: Liner Notes for Hip-Hop Junikes, clocking in at nearly 500 pages, reveals "the back stories of three dozen classic rap albums." The book is an expanded version of his self-published 2005 book, "Rakim Told Me: Hip-Hp Wax Facts, Straight From the Original Artists."

Swann, Dainel T. "A band's plan to change the world." The Boston Globe (June 8, 2007): B15, 16. Harvard grads Jonathan M. Gramling, Kelly Nicole Johson, and Derrik N. Ashong form Solfege, a traveling ensemble that uses music based on such sources as African music & rhythms, funk and hip hop, concert tours like their Sweet Mother tour, and international projects like their Voice of the Streets venture, described as a "hip hop olympics," to use pop culture to create social change and to change the portrayal of black society in hip hop.

Sweeting, A. "High definition (Hip Hop, A Stereo History video). Melody Maker 59 (31 September 1984):31.

Tannenbaum, R. "Music: Sucker MC (Vanilla Ice's hip-hop commercialization). The Village Voice 35 (December 4,1990):69.

Tate, Greg. "Music: Diary of a bug (real life hiphop Top 17)." The Village Voice 33 (November 22, 1988):73.

_____. "Riffs: Hiphop is here to stay." The Village Voice 29 (4 September 1984):73. Illustrated.

_____. et al. "Hiphop nation." The Village Voice 33 (January 19, 1988):21-2+.

_____. "Jungle Boogie: London's "Drum & Bass" Music is Taking Hip-Hop Back to the Future. Pulse 150 (July 1996):64.

Thurnauer, Eric. Exposure: Hooked on Ebonics--Hip-Hop as a Second Language. Spin 13: 1 (April 1997):42.

Trebay, Guy. "Hip-hop flashbacks: Flatbush is in the house." New York Times (5 May 2002):E6. Article on the unexpected success of Powerhouse Books' Back in the Days that offers a pictoral essay on the pre-gansta days of hip-hop.

Tolleson, Robin. Review of Drummer's Guide to Hip Hop, New Jack Swing, Hip House, Soca House, by Bill Elder, Modern Drummer 21 (February 1997):137.

Touré. "Gay Rappers: Too REal for Hip-Hop?" New York Times (April 20, 2003):Arts & Leisure Section 2: 1,29. Chronicles the struggle of "gay performers ina homophobic business."

Touré. "The Hip-Hop Generation Grabs a Guitar." New York Times Section 2 (Aug. 11, 2002):1,28. Examination of trend of musicians like Mos Def turning to rock & roll for more than just sampling.

Tyrangiel, Josh. "What Happened to Hammer?: Hip Hop's Best-Seller is Flat Broke." VIBE 4:7 (September 1996):56.

V., Jazzy. "Hip-hop history: D.J. Red Alert goes berserk." Cash Box 52 (May 27, 1989):8.

Wang, Jimmy. "Now Hip-0Hop, Too, Is Made in China." The New York Times (January 24, 2009): C1, 6. Since approximately 2000, Chinese hip-hop groups have attracted increasing interest amoung urban youth though the groups still lack corporate backing or government approval.

Weber, Bruce. "Hip-Hop Howls Its Way Into the Dramatic Realm." New York Times (27 June 2001):B5. A review of the New york City Hip-Hop Theater Festival.

Weinger. "Hip-hop heading for the huge halls." Billboard 96 (29 September 1984):40.

Weinstein, Ross S. "Del tha Funky Homosapien: 11th Hour." The Harvard Crimson (March 14, 2008):B4. His "first solo album in eight years [has] a style without equal in the hip-hop world."

Weisel, Al. "Singles File: The Braids Update Queen for the Hip-Hop Crowd." Rolling Stone 748 (28 November 1996):34.

Wentz, B. "Giant step -- where jazz collides with hip-hop." Down Beat 58 (11 October, 1991):11. Illustrated.

Wielenga, Dave. "Hip-Hop Nation is Shaken by Tupac Shakur Ambush Off Las Vegas Strip." Rolling Stone 745 (17 October 1996):40.

Williams, Alex. "Dungeons Dragons and Dope Beats." The New York Times (Aug. 5, 2007) Sunday Styles: 1, 2. Self-confessed nerds "emerge from the shadows of the Internet" and gather in Austin, Texas.

________. "To the Top: A Hip-Hop How-to." The New York Times (Sept. 25, 2005) Sunday Styles: 1, 2. Warner Music Group VP, Kevin Liles' first book Make It Happen: The Hip-Hop Generation Guide to Success (Atrin, 2005) "argues that hip-hop . . . is in fact a medium . . . that is replete with valuable lessons about honest hard work, discipline and perseverence."

Williams, Erik J. "Only God Can Judge Us, Only God Can Save Us: The Hip Hop Soul of Thugology," in Hip Hop Culture: Language, Literature, Literacy and the Lives of Black Youth, special issue of the Black Arts Quarterly, Stanford University Committee on Black Performing Arts, Summer 2001, edited by Alim, H. Samy.

________. "Thug Jesus: The Real Meaning of Christmas," Africana.com, December 21, 2000.

________. "THUGOLOGY: Carving Out Explosive Biblical and Theological Space in a Hip Hop Universe," in 360 Degreez of Sonia Sanchez, Hip Hop, Narrativity, Iqhawe and Public Spaces of Being, BMa: The Sonia Sanchez Literary Review, 6.1, Fall 2000, edited by Spady, James G.

Yancy, George. Review of "Twisted Tales: In the Hip Hop Streets of Philly,' by James G. Spady, Stefan Dupres, and Charles G. Lee." Popular Music and Society 19:3 (Fall 1995):131-36.

Zimmerman, K. "Hip-hop hub hewn by recent racial uproar (presidential candidate Bill Clinton vs. Sister Souljah). Variety 347 (June 22, 1992):48+.

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Recordings

#1 hip hop hits. Minneapolis, MN: Simitar, 1997.

2Pac. Pac's Life. Interscope: 2006. Reviewed by Kelefa Sanneh.

(electro hip-hop). Reviewed in Melody Maker 59 (August 11, 1984):28.

14 fathoms deep a hip hop compilation. S.l.: Loosegroove, 1996.

Aesop. Aesop Hip-Hop [twenty-five Aesop's fables presented in contemporary rhythm and rhyme]. Freeport, NY: Educational Activities, 1994. Cassette.

Alkaholiks. Likwidation. New York, NY: Loud Records: RCA, 1997. Cassette.

Asher D & Daddy Freddy. Ragamuffin hip-hop. New York: Profile Records, 1988. LP.

Berkeley Public Library. Rap & hip-hop: their impact on African American culture. [Berkeley, CA]: Berkeley Public Library, 1996. Cassette.

Bobby Jimmy and the Critters. Hip hop prankster. Hollywood, CA: Priority Records, 1989. LP.

Boogie Down Productions. Ghetto music, the blueprint of hip hop. New York, NY: Jive, 1989. CD/Cassette.

Cadence Weapon. Afterparty Babies. Epitaph Records: 2008. Reviewed by Katherine L. Miller.

Chill Deal Boyz. Hip hop ain't nothin' but a party. Beverly Hills, CA: Pump Records, 1991. CD/Cassette.

Clue, D J. The Professional 3. Rock-a-Fella: 2006. Reviewed by Kelefa Sanneh.

Countdown Dance Masters. Hip hop party mix. St. Laurent, Quebec: Distributed by Madacy Entertainment Group, 1996. CD/Cassette.

_____. Power dance mix. St. Laurent, Quebec: Medacy Entertainment Group, 1996. CD.

Crucial Hip Hop 3. Reviewed in Melody Maker 62 (January 24, 1987):29.

Cuevas, Chris. Hip hop. New York: Atlantic, 1991. LP.

D. St. The Home of hip hop. New York, NY: Celluloid, 1985. LP.

D.J. Chuck Chill Out. Hip hop on wax. Volume 1. New York: Vintertainment, 1984. LP.

D.J. Jazzy Jeff. He's the DJ, I'm the rapper. [New York]: Jive, 1988. LP.

D.J. Red Alert. Hip hop on wax. Volume 2. New York: Vintertainment, 1984. LP.

Daddy, Trick. Back by Thug Demand. Atlantic, 2006: CD. Reviewed by Keleva Sanneh

Das EFX. Hold it down. New York: East West, 1995. LP.

Del tha Funky Homosapien. 11th hour. Definitiv Jux: 2008. Reviewed by Ross S. Weinstein.

Diamond and the Psychotic Neurotics. Stunts, blunts, & hip hop. New York, NY: Mercury, 1992. CD/Cassette.

Dynamix Music Service. Hip hop world. Baltimore, MD: Dynamix Music Service, 1994. Cassette.

Electro/Hip-hop II. Reviewed in Melody Maker 61 (March 30, 1986):30.

Eurobeats. The best of rap: rap masters. Minneapolis, MN: Dance Flava ; K-Tel International (USA), 1997. Cassette.

Flex, Funkmaster. The mix tape. 60 minutes of funk / Volume II. Loud, New York, 1997.

Funky Buzz Productions. Hip hop chop shop fresh loops, hits, breaks, and beats. 1. Newark, NJ: Compose, 1996. CD.

Guru. Jazzmatazz. The new reality. Volume II. New York: Chrysalis, 1995. LP.

Hart, Rich. Hip hop world. Baltimore, MD: Dynamix Music Service, 1994. Cassette.

Hip hop 'n jazz. Hollywood, CA: CEMA Special Markets, 1994.

Hip hop classics. Volume one. Los Angeles, CA: Priority Records, 1996.

Hip hop classics. Volume three. Los Angeles, CA: Priority Records, 1997.

Hip hop classics. Volume two. Los Angeles, CA: Priority Records, 1996.

Hip hop east meets west. Volume 3. da underground sound. Los Angeles, CA: Priority Records, 1997.

Hip hop jazz. Vol. 1, Acid metropolis. Los Angeles, CA: Priority Records, Inc., 1996.

Hip hop party mix. St. Laurent, Quebec: Madacy Entertainment Group (distributor), 1996.

Hip hop with R&B flava. New York, NY: Rebound Records, 1997.

Jimmy, Bobby. Hip hop prankster. Hollywood, CA: Priority Records, 1990. CD.

Kim, Song-jae. Kim Song-jae. [Seoul]: Music Life, 199_.

Kunjufu, Jawanza. Hip-hop vs. MAAT. Chicago, IL: African American Images, N.D. Casette.

Lawrence and the B. Attitudes. Lawrence the Kat & the B. Attitudes a hip-hop account of the Sermon on the Mount. Irving, TX: Everland Entertainment, 1993. CD.

Lighter Shade of Brown. Hip hop locos. New York: Mercury, 1992. CD/Cassette.

Lyrical Myrical. Lyrical Myrical. Cleveland, OH: Myrical Records, 1997. CD.

Mantronix. The album. New York, NY: Sleeping Bag Records, 1985. LP.

MJG. No more glory. New York, N.Y.: Suave House, 1997.

_____. No more glory. New York, NY: Suave House, 1997. LP.

Myrical, Lyrical. Lyrical Myrical. Cleveland, OH: Myrical Records, 1997.

Naughty by Nature. Hip hop hooray: The Hood comes first. New York: Tommy Boy, 1993. CD/LP/Cassette.

Nelson, Lisa Marie. Hip-hop kid pop! Westlake Village, CA: Bright Ideas Productions, 1994. CD.

Nice & Smooth. Jewel of the Nile. New York: RAL (Rush Associated Labels), 1994. LP.

Nilson, Troy and Genie Nilson, producers. Hip hop hymns for kids: totally cool hymns just for kids. Brentwood, TN: Brentwood Music, Inc., 1995. Cassette.

O, Rodne (Cooley, Rodney). Get ready to roll. Seattle, WA: Nastymix, 1995. LP.

Old school hip hop wicked mix. S.n., s.l. N.d.

Parrish, Man. Boogie down. Aerdenhout, Holland: Rams Horn, 1985. LP.

_____. Hip hop, be bop (don't stop: Hip hop, be bop (part 2). 1982. LP.

Q.B.C. This is called hip hop; Queens Brooklyn Connection. [S.l.]: Capitol, 1988. LP.

Reggae all stars hip hop. Jamaica, N.Y: V.P. Records, 1994.

Roake, Anne Marie. A Hip hop. [Stockholm, Sweden?]: Dragon, 1986. LP.

Roberts & the Press. Hip hop hall of fame. New York: Next Plateau Records, 1990. LP.

Rock, Chubb. And the winner is--. New York: Select, 1989. LP.

Rodriguez , O.C., A. Wyatt, E. Sanchez, and F. Nitti. Urban beats: 50 urban, rap and hip-hop beats ideally suited for DJs and producers. Volume 1. New York: Next Plateau/Roadrunner, 1996. CD.

Scott Young, exec. prod. Hip hop classics. Volume two. Los Angeles, CA: Priority Records, 1996 1987. CD.

Shazzy. Attitude: a hip-hop rapsody. New York, NY: Elektra, 1990. LP.

Snoop Dog. Ego Trippin. Geffen: 2008. Reviewed by Alec E. Jones.

Sugarhill Gang. Rapper's delight hip hop remix '89. Englewood, NJ: Sugar Hill, 1989. CD/Cassette.

Tommy Boy. Doowutchyalike. New York: Tommy Boy, 1989. Casette.

Too Nice. Cold facts. New York: Arista, 1989. LP.

Ugly Food. Ugly Food. Wildberg, West Germany: X-Mist, 1989. 45.

Various performers. Bomb hip hop compilation. San Francisco, CA: Bomb Entertainment, 1994. Cassette and booklet.

Various performers. B-ball's best kept secret. New York, NY: Immortal/Epic Street, 1994. LP.

Various performers. Big phat ones of hip-hop, volume 1. New York: PolyGram, 1995. LP/CD/Cassette/Videocassette.

Various performers. Classic hip hop mastercuts. Volume 1. Shepperton [Middlesex, England]: Mastercuts, 1995. Cassette.

Various performers. Classic hip hop mastercuts. Volume II. Shepperton [Middlesex, England]: Mastercuts, 1996.

Various performers. From hip to hop. Volume 2. New York, NY: Orchard Lane Music: Manufactured by PolyGram Special Markets, 1995. Cassette.

Various performers. Hard as hell! New York: Profile, 1988. LP.

Various performers. Hip hop back in the day. Los Angeles, CA: Priority, 1995. Cassette.

Various performers. Hip hop greats: 12 classic raps. Santa Monica, CA: Rhino, 1986. CD/Cassette.

Various performers. Hip hop heritage, volume I. New York, NY: Jive, 1989. CD/Cassette.

Various performers. Hip hop mix. Miami, FL: Max Music & Entertainment, 1995. CD/Cassette.

Various performers. Hip-hop heritage volume 1. New York, NY: RCA Records/Jive, 1989. LP.

Various performers. Hip-hop reggae. Jamaica, NY: VP Records, 1995. CD.

Various performers. Hit hip hop on hot vinyl. Hollywood, CA: Macola Record Co., 1985. Casette.

Various performers. Latin hip hop flava. Los Angeles, CA: Priority Records, 1996. CD.

Various performers. Latin lingo hip-hop from the raza. Los Angeles, CA: Rhino, 1995. CD.

Various performers. Maximum R&B. New York: Elektra, 1997. CD.

Various performers. Musicflex hip-hop mix. Queens, NY: Musicflex, 1995. Cassette.

Various performers. Old school hip hop: wicked mix. S.l: S.n., N.d. CD.

Various performers. Pump ya fist: Hip hop inspired by the Black Panthers. New York: PolyGram Records, 1995. Cassette.

Various performers. Rapmasters 4: the best of hip hop. Hollywood, CA: Priority Records, Inc., 1989. CD/Cassette.

Various performers. Reggae all stars hip hop. Jamaica, NY: V.P. Records, 1994. CD.

Various performers. Street jams: hip hop from the top, part 2. Santa Monica, CA: Rhino Records, 1992. 1981. Casseette.

Various performers. Street jams: hip-hop from the top, part 1. Santa Monica, CA: Rhino Records, 1992 1979. Cassette.

Various performers. Street jams: hip-hop from the top, part 3. Los Angeles, CA: Rhino Records, 1994 1984. Cassette.

Various performers. Street jams: hip-hop from the top, part 4. Los Angeles, CA: Rhino Records, 1994 1985. Cassette.

Various performers. Street sounds crucial electro. Surrey, England: Street Sounds/Electro, 1984. LP.

Various performers. The Best of hip hop. Hollywood, CA: Priority Records, 1992. CD (originally released 1989-1990).

Various performers. The box. Volume 1. BOXtunes, 1995. CD.

Various performers. Ultimate club mix. St. Laurent, Quebec: Medacy Entertainment Group, 1996. CD.

Various performers. Ultimate hip hop party 1998. New York, NY: Arista, 1997. Cassette.

Various performers. Unity mix IV: 808 state hip hop : non-stop in the mix. [Hawaii]: I.T.M., 1995. CD.

Warner Kids. Animaniacs in A Christmas Plotz the hip hop musical. [Burbank, Calif.]: Warner Kids, 1995. Casette and book. An updated version of Dickens' A Christmas carol in which Yakko, Wakko, and Dot teach Ralph's boss Mr. Plotz the meaning of Christmas. ?? No author listed.

Who Am I?. Addictive hip hop muzick. [S.l.]: Ruthless Records, 1991. CD.

Xscape. Off the hook. New York: So So Def, 1995. LP.

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Serials

4080: the hip hop monthly for the Greater Bay Area. Berkeley, CA: s.n. Issued monthly.

The Bomb hip-hop magazine. San Francisco, CA: Bomb Hip-Hop Magazine. Issued monthly.

The diamond: hip hop from a midwestern perspective. Cincinnati, OH: The Diamond Publication. Issued monthly. ISSN: 1086-0126. Began in 1992.

Doula: Journal of Rap Music and Hip Hop Culture. Brooklyn, NY: Urban Thinktank, Inc. Issued quarterly.

The Flavor: a real hip-hop magazine. Seattle, WA: Flavor Publishing Co., 199? Bimonthly.

Fly paper: Chicagoz only, strictly undaground hip-hop literature. Chicago, IL: The Enterprise. Issued monthly.

Freeground: homegrown hip hop, news, views & attitudes. Miami, FL: Cin D. Quashie, 1994. Published monthly.

Full disclosure: the business of Hip-Hop. Brooklyn, NY: Full Disclosure, 1995. Bimonthly.

Hip hop connection. Stamford, CT: All Sounds & Promotions, 1988. Quarterly.

Hip hop fashions. New York, NY: Starlog Telecommunications, Inc. Issued quarterly.

Hip hop industry roundup The. Los Angeles, CA: Bailey Broadcasting Services. Issued annually.

Hip hop life. Arlington, TX: Dub Nation Publication. Issued monthly. ISSN: 1092-5090.

Hip-hop connection. Forehill, Ely: Popular Publications, 1994. Monthly.

JOR quarterly. Philadelphia, PA: Universal World Communications. Issued quarterly.

Lady J., ed. Who's who in Christian hip-hop: artists directory. Omaha: Urban Music Ministries United, 1996. Annual directory.

Perry, Craig Rex. Hip Hop heaven. Chicago, IL: Boom-Town Productions, 1993. Bimonthly.

Serious hip hop magazine. Philadelphia, PA: Hip Hop, Inc. Issued bimonthly.

The Source: The Magazine of Hip-Hop Music, Culture & Politics. Edited by J. Schecter. (NY 10012-3233, 594 Broadway, Suite 510, The Source. Monthly.)

Strange, Adario, ed. The Source: The Magazine of Hip-Hop Music, Culture & Politics. New York: The Source. Monthly. 1988-9

Vibe Magazine. Edited by Emil Wilbekin. (215 Lexington Avenue, New York, NY 10016. Monthly.) Winner of the 2002 General Excellence award from the American Society of Magazine Editors.

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Theses

Clark, Marika. "News, national: Harris, hip-hop on the positive tip." Dance magazine, Feb. 1997: 56, 58. Illustrated.

Guevara Rodriguez, Nancy. HIP-HOP: women in New York's street culture. M.A. Thesis, Queens College (Sociology), 1985.

Hull, Susan Hall. The fighting spirit of hip hop: an alternative ghetto experience. M.A. thesis, University of British Columbia, 1988. Bibliography, discography and list of films and videos.

Miller, Allison E. Hip-hop in the 1990's: by any means necessary. M.A. Thesis, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1990.

Norfleet, Dawn Michaelle. "Hip-hop culture" in New York City : the role of verbal musical performance in defining a community. Ph. D. diss., Columbia University, 1997. Bibliography and discography.

Norman, Doug. The Identity Politics of Queer Hip Hop. University of Texas at Austin. N.D. Explores "the radical politics of queer hip hop or “homohop ” as some have dubbed it." Avaliable online at http://www.cwrl.utexas.edu/~norman/papers/QueerHipHop.pdf.

Roake, Anne Marie. Handbook for teaching college hip-hop aerobics. M.A. thesis, California State University, Dominguez Hills, 1995. Includes bibliographical references, and "Handbook for teaching college hip-hop aerobics, "an instructional program for community college exercise teachers.

Rundlet, Travis Desmond. The crisis of Black neo-nationalism: Hip-Hop, MTV, and Black cultural representation. B.A. thesis, Williams College, Dept. of American Studies, 1992. Bibliography.

Stephens, Ronald Jemal. Keepin' it real towards an Afrocentric aesthetic analysis of rap music and hip- hop subculture. Ph.D. Thesis, Temple University, 1996.

Waryas, Diane Elizabeth. Da way of da word: analyzing the rhetorical phenomenon of hip hop graffiti using Hymes' ethnography of speaking. Ph.D. diss., Miami University, 1996.

White, Miles. "The high fidelity turntable system and the creation of hip hop music: an organological inquiry." Ph.D. diss., University of Washington, 1996. Includes videorecording with examples of disc jockeys demonstrating the use of turntables in hip hop music.

Williams, Erik J., "The Holy House of Thugs Worship Service," M. Div. Thesis, Harvard
Divinity School, 2001.

Wilson, Victoria Arriola. The social organization of the hip hop graffiti subculture. M.A. thesis, College of William and Mary, 1995. Bibliography.

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Videos

Abend, Richard and Jason Streetman. Hip-hop pronunciation: the vowel sounds of American English. Carmel Valley, CA: Village Video Productions, 1995.

Anjolell , Dick D. producer, writer. Make it happen! in hip-hop & rap .Media, PA: RMD and Associates, 1995.

Bunch, Angie. Hip-hop funk dance II featuring Angie Bunch. Louisville, KY: Cheerdance/InLytes, 1995.

Bunch, Angie and Rauly Duenas. Hip-hop funk 299 featuring Angie Bunch & Rauly Duenas. Louisville, KY: InLytes Productions, Inc., 1995. Step-by-step creative choreography ideas for professional fitness instructors.

Cash, M.C. Hip-hop aerobics. Freehold, N.J.; Goldstar Video, 1993. Two videocassettes.

Duenas, Rauly. Hip-hop funk dance I featuring Rauly Duenas. Louisville, KY: Cheerdance/InLytes, 1995.

ESPN Home Video. The fitness pros: hiphop aerobics. Stamford, CT: ESPN Home Video, 1994.

Fitzgerald, Jacqueline. Let's dance America! Newport Beach, CA: Aakash Productions, 1991. Modern freestyle and hip hop dance styles of the 90's.

Groove B Chill. Hip hop music. [Los Angeles, Calif.?]: A&M, 1990. LP.

Grossberg, Lawrence. Rock to hip hop: cultural phenomena. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri-Columbia, 1993. Speech delivered at the first International Conference on Rock 'n' Rap, Feb. 4, 1993, at the University of Missouri-Columbia.

Hip hop body shop with Milo Levell power buns. Newark, NJ: Parade Video, 1996.

Hip hop body shop with Milo Levell twister abs. Newark, NJ: Parade Video, 1996.

Hip hop dancing for the 90's. S.l.: Dance Basics Plus Videos, 1991.

Hip hop for kids. New York, NY: Jumping Fish Productions, 1996.

Hip-hop funk 299 featuring Angie Bunch & Rauly Duenas. Louisville, KY: InLytes Productions, Inc., 1995. Presents step-by-step creative choreography ideas for professional fitness instructors. VHS format.

Hip-hop kidz. Learn to hip-hop dance. Beverley Hills, CA: M.A.D. Degrees Productions, 1995.

Hip hop multiplication. Lake Orion, MI: Rapability Publishing, 1991.

Horner, Diane. Country hip hop. Minneapolis, MN: Quality Video, 1993. Country dancing hip hop.

Ipiotis, Celia. Popular culture in dance: the world of hip hop. New York, NY: Videodance, 1984.

Johnson, Victoria. The Hip hop solution. [United States]: L.A. Gear, 1993.

Leebron, Elizabeth J., producer. Reaching the hip-hop generation. Philadelphia, PA: MEE Productions, Inc., 1993.

Lefvell, Milo. Hip hop body shop. Newark, NJ: Parade Video, 1995.

Liz Milwe, producer, Roger G., host. Hip hop for kids. New York, NY: Jumping Fish Productions, 1993.

M.A.D. Degrees Productions. Hip-hop kidz. Beverly Hills, CA: M.A.D. Degrees Productions, 1995.

MaDonna Grimes & the Sexy Sistas of Soul hip hop dance workout. Lake Oswego, OR: Fitness Visions, Inc., 1997.

Marx, Gilda. Gilda Marx presents Hip hop animal rock workout. [United States]: Crystal Rain Media Entertainment, Inc., 1993. Physical fitness for children.

Montella, Sharon. Lift every voice: a presentation of hip hop and jazz dance. Boston, MA: The Boston Conservatory, 1994.

MTV Networks. Rapumentary Rocumentary. New York, NY: MTV Networks, 1993.

Documentary about the history of rap music. From its early (1975) origins in the Bronx (New York City) to its rapid spread to Los Angeles and the rest of the country. Examples are given from live performances. Includes interviews with performers and producers, and examples of New York hip hop.

Nader, Lynda. The grind workout: hip hop aerobics. New York: MTV Networks, 1995.

Obrentz, Mary Ann. Step aerobics: featuring the brand new Hip Hop beat and moves. [s.l.]: Nesak International, n.d.

Paradis, Andre. Hip hop with Andre. [S.l.]: Studio Music in association with DanceVideo, 1992.

Patterson, Jackie. Dance hip hop. Newark, NJ: Parade Video, manufactured & distributed by PPI, 1990. "Jackie and his talented friends will teach and entertain you with the freshest "Hip hop" dance steps.".

PBS Video. The hip-hop alternative. [Alexandria, Va.]: PBS Video, 1992.

This segment of the television show "Club connect" attempts to help teenage viewers appreciate the value of diversity in people, fashion, music, and art. Leaders of the hip-hop subculture define their lifestyle.

Roston, Janet. Hip-hop habit 3. Beverly Hills, CA: M.A.D. Degrees Productions, 1996.

_____. Hip-hop habit II. Beverly Hills, CA: M.A.D. Degrees Productions, 1995.

_____. Jammin' Janet's hip-hop! class. hip-hop dance class. Beverly Hills, CA: M.A.D. Degrees Prods., 1992.

Stefone Pet'tis and Tony Lewis, producers. Hip hop: dancing for the 90's. Santa Monica, CA: Solar Home Video, 1991.

A professional dance coach takes the viewer step by step through the hippest dance moves of today.

Various performers. Big phat ones of hip-hop, volume 1. New York: PolyGram, 1995.

Various performers. Big phat ones of hip-hop. volume 2. New York: PolyGram, 1996.

Various performers. Hip hop--you don't stop. New York, NY: Thirteen/WNET, 1992. Performance of hip-hop dancing, recorded in outdoor locations. Entrant in the Grand Prix International Video Danse.

Wherlow Jim, director. The L.A. power funk workout. Hicksville, NY: [Distributed by] Best Film & Video Corp., 1992.

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Notes

1Tony Bones, "Placebo," 10th Letter, New York: Fondel 'em, 1997(?). EP.
2Steven Stancell, Rap Whoz who: The World of Rap Music (New York: Schirmer Music, 1996), v-vi.
3Ibid., p. vii.
4Ibid.
5Patricia Romanowsky and Holly George-Warren, ed., The New Rolling Stone Encyclopedia of Rock & Roll (New York: Fireside, 1995), 442-43.
6 Stancell, p. i.
7Release date May 22, 1998. See Maureen Dowd, "Liberties: The Bulworth Doctrine," The New York Times (April 29, 1998), p. A29, and http://movieweb.com/movie/bulworth/index.html.
8Reviewed in Notes 49 n3, 1993:1091-2.
9Reviewed in Notes 49 n2 1992:667-8.

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© John Ranck, D.M.A.
Updated 16.November.2009

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