c.1345:  HINXMAN Beginnings
The Henxmen & Associated Surnames


This page provides an overview of the origin of HINXMAN and related names, derived from a long-term study of original mediaeval and later sources.

Job Title
The surname of HINXMAN and related names is derived from the occupation of Henxman (plural: Henxmen), who were trusted bodyguards and personal servants of the English monarchs.  Evidence indicates the post was first created by Edward III (illustrated below) in circa 1345.  The post existed until 1565 AD, when it was abolished by Elizabeth I.  It was not hereditary, but was awarded on ability and merit - so the Henxmen were not normally related to each other (although sometimes, some were).

Various numbers of Henxmen were employed at different times, but there were typically 6 Royal Henxmen serving the monarch, plus sometimes a Sergeant or Master of Henxmen in charge.
  Henxmen were also sometimes retained by other members of the royal family - such as Edward, the Black Prince (1330-1376); by other great lords - such as Henry Bolingbroke, Earl of Derby (1367-1413); and even by some Lord Mayors of London.  However, these positions were intermittent and few in number, compared with the royal troop of Henxmen which appears to have been maintained continuously for 220 years.

Name Origin

The title of Henxman is derived from the Old English 'hengst' + 'man', meaning 'stallion man'
, reflecting their ceremonial function.  Here is how their job title came about:

Few people could read in mediaeval times, so imagery and symbolism were of much greater importance then.  This made it necessary for the monarch to ride only a stallion (i.e. a non-castrated male horse) in public, to show the mastery, power and even fertility of a strong and confident leader.  But this in turn created a problem during state processions. 

The monarch and officers of state naturally rode during processions, emphasising their high and mighty position compared with the more numerous, lowly participants on foot.  This left the monarch with the difficult and dangerous task of keeping a strong, high-spirited and potentially aggressive stallion walking at a sedate human pace, between shouting, waving crowds.  There was potential for real political embarrassment, and even personal danger, if the monarch lost control. 

The solution was so simple, neat, and effective that it remained in use for 220 years.

Strong and trustworthy young men were selected, to walk close beside the stallion and assist the monarch if needed.  If necessary, each might be given an additional rein to the stallion's bridle.  It was found that 3 men each side, making 6 in total, was the ideal number to obtain a strong grip close to the stallion's head, capable of preventing him from rearing or bolting.  Together they kept the stallion under control, and the monarch safe. 

Thus the key ceremonial duty of the Henxmen, and the origin of their job title - the 'stallion men' - was to control the monarch's stallion during public processsions.  This position of great trust, close around the monarch, also made them ideally suited for additional roles, which were part of the Henxmen's duties from an early date.

Illustration:  King Edward III.  Engraved 1688.
It was this King who first created the post of Henxman, in circa 1345.  For picture details, see footnotes.

Status
The Henxmen enjoyed high status, and were entrusted with special powers as part of their work.  For instance,
as trusted bodyguards they were the only people allowed to routinely carry weapons in the royal presence.

Being at the heart of state processions, and part of the Royal Household, the Henxmen naturally wore rich and expensive uniforms.  These were often made especially for the event, to contribute to the great spectacle of these state occasions.  But the Henxmen were unique (apart from Heralds) in having specific permission to wear the colours normally reserved for the royal family.   This signalled they had the authority of the sovereign in carrying out their duties, and that to threaten a Henxman would be interpreted as an attack upon the monarch himself - which strengthened their role in protecting the monarch.

It was important to prevent any misuse of this powerful authority, so as long as the post existed it appears that Henxmen were only allowed to use the title on active duty.  Throughout this long period, there are no clear records of the name being used by off-duty or former Henxmen, nor by their descendants. 

Carefully selected, and trained to act both independently and as a team, the Henxmen became synonymous with their key qualities of capability, confidentiality, loyalty, trustworthiness, and dedication to duty.  They were regarded with awe by writers of that period, and their impressive reputation lasted long after their post was abolished.

From Job Title to Surnames
The Henxman word is used throughout these websites to indicate the original job title.  This particular spelling was common during the Henxmen era; was never subsequently adopted as a family surname; and became extinct soon after the Henxman era - so it remains a good choice to indicate the ancient meaning of the original job title.

However, during the Henxman era this job title was spelt in many different ways.  Spelling was far from standardised, and sometimes the same word was spelt several different ways even on the same page.  There was no 'right' way to spell a word; it was a matter of individual choice how to represent a sound.  Thus if two different spellings sounded the same, they were effectively the same word - and this remains a good test for recognising ancient word variants.

Over 40 different spellings of the Henxman word have been discovered so far, and some of these have survived as surnames.  A brief explanation of some is given below, and further surname variants may yet be confirmed.

HENCHMAN & HINCHMAN Surnames
The job title of Henxman was sometimes spelt as Henchman in early times, and this spelling survives as the modern noun of henchman.  But the meaning of Henchman, originally very specific, has changed over the centuries and now holds additional, different connotations - so it is not used here in relation to the mediaeval job title. 

There is also a family name of HENCHMAN, which has a related but slightly different origin.  The HENCHMAN surname was granted to their ancestor, originally Thomas CROSBOROUGH (1480-1533) of Northamptonshire, by King Henry VII (reigned 1485-1509).  This grant was not made for services as an actual Henxman, but rather as a compliment to Thomas, indicating that in his close and reliable support of the King he had acted very like one - which provides an interesting reflection upon the Henxmen's positive reputation.
  This is the only known occasion, during well over 200 years of the job's existence, when someone who was not a Henxman was allowed to use the title as a family surname.

The family name of HINCHMAN also appears to arise from this same ancestor, via an early spelling variant of his HENCHMAN name.  The HINCHMAN family is therefore effectively a branch of the HENCHMAN family.  Thus the HENCHMAN & HINCHMAN families, while sharing their own common origin and genetic links, have no genetic relationship either to the original Henxmen or to the modern descendants of the Henxmen.

HINCKESMAN, HINCKSMAN, HINKSMAN & HINXMAN Surnames

The post of Henxman in the English Royal Household was abolished by Elizabeth I in 1565.  Following abolition, it seems to have become acceptable for former Henxmen to retain their occupational title as a personal name.  There was therefore a relatively brief period (less than a lifetime) when the job title could become a surname, although (since there were usually only 6 Henxmen employed at any time) there were few people who could claim it.  This explains why it has always been such a rare surname.

At least two (and maybe more) former Henxmen apparently adopted the name, and founded lasting families bearing versions of that surname.  Fortunately for family history research, the two families tended to spell their surnames in consistently different ways, and they settled in different regions of England. 
Both of these families appear to be the genetic descendants of original Henxmen.  They are almost certainly not genetically related to each other, but they share the same distinguished heritage.

One founding father appears to have settled near the middle of the border between England and Wales, and his descendants have generally spelt their name as HINKSMAN.

Another founding father seems to have settled in Hampshire, England - probably in or near the towns of Andover or Fareham - and his descendants typically spelt their name as HINXMAN.  He is the originator of the family that is the main focus of this website, although there is much information contained here for all those named after the Mediaeval and Renaissance Henxmen.

The origins of the HINCKESMAN and HINCKSMAN families are currently less clear, although they almost certainly they have the same Henxman origins.  They may descend from other founding fathers, formerly Henxmen, who adopted the name soon after 1565.  Alternatively, they may be offshoots (now differently spelt) of the HINKSMAN or HINXMAN families.  It is hoped that further research will resolve this question. 

Illustration:  Queen Elizabeth I.  Circa 1575.
Documentary evidence shows the post of Henxman was abolished by Queen Elizabeth I, on about 01 Dec 1565.  For picture details, see footnotes.

HINSMAN & HITCHMAN Surnames

The HINSMAN surname is possibly related to the Henxmen, but its origin is less certain.  Its sound is close to that of HINKSMAN/HINXMAN, so it may be a spelling variant of these (indicating genetic descent from an original Henxman).  It could also be a variant derived from HINCHMAN (itself a variant of HENCHMAN, and therefore descended from Thomas CROSBOROUGH).  Lastly, HINSMAN may be derived from HENSMAN (which, if it arose from 'hens' (i.e. chickens) + 'man', is not related to the Henxmen word at all).  At present the true origin of this family and its name remains unclear.

It has occasionally been claimed that the HITCHMAN surname is also derived from Henxman.  It is just possible that this has occurred, through a sequence of variants and mis-spellings.  However the difference in sound, and the lack of documentary evidence, makes this origin seem unlikely.

Henxmen Heritage
Overall the picture is complex, reflecting the widespread reknown and lengthy existence of the original Henxmen.  Their name, originally spelt in many inventive ways, was in its time a byword for trustworthiness, faithfulness and dedication.  The Henxmen caught people's imagination, and their name became widely known. 

One variant of their name survives today as the common noun of henchman, now overlaid with additional modern meanings.  Other variants survive as a group of surnames: of descendants of one granted the name as a compliment; and
of genetic descendants of original Henxmen.

The fascinating history of the Henxmen reaches back over 200 years before the founding of our family surnames, and is entwined with royal patronage and great state events.  The employment of the Henxmen in the Royal Household means they were unusually well recorded, and many interesting details about them have survived.
  The title of Henxman and its surname variants carries a rare and special heritage, and these webpages aim to preserve and disseminate its story.

References
This page draws on content from a range of original sources, which for the sake of simplicity are not listed here.  However, all of them are in the process of being published in detail on a companion website, Henxmen Sources.

Next . . .
  • Click on The Henxman Era for an overview of the dates and reigns of the monarchs who employed Henxmen in their Royal Households.
  • Click on HINXMAN Family to begin exploring our family, founded by one of the Henxmen.
Webpage version 2017.6.  First version 2015.
Webpage c
opyright © Richard HINXMAN, 2015.
Illustrations

1.  King Edward III
Detail from a monochrome engraving.  Found in:  Joshua BARNES.  1688.  The History of that Most Victorious Monarch Edward III, King of England and France, and Lord of Ireland and First Founder of the Most Noble Order of the Garter: Being a Full and Exact Account of the Life and Death of the said King, Together with That of his Most renowned Son Edward, Prince of Wales and of Aquitain, sirnamed the Black Prince, Faithfully and carefully Collected from the Best and most Antient Authors Domestick and Foreign, Printed Books, Manuscripts and Records.  Frontispiece, facing title page.  John HAYES. Cambridge, England.  Collection of Richard HINXMAN.  Copyright © Richard HINXMAN 2016.

2. 
Queen Elizabeth I
Her abolition of the Henxmen probably arose from a cost-saving review of her household accounts.  It allowed the title to be adopted as a surname - the origin of HINXMAN.

Original:  Unknown artist.  Oil on panel.  Circa 1575.  Queen Elizabeth I.  44
½" x 31" (1130 x 787mm).  Purchased 1925.  National Portrait Gallery.  London, England.  Primary Collection.  NPG 2082.  Source:  https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ADarnley_stage_3.jpg.
  Licence:  https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0.