Only the sailent features are given here. It is better to study these with the help of anatomical charts & skeleton.

Position and function of hard tissues (Bones & Cartilages) 

Skull : Made of cranial bones and lower jaw – protects brain

Vertebral Column : Made of 33 small bones (vertebral) – Keeps posture , protects spinal chord.

Ribs : Twelve pairs, forms the thoracic cage – protects vital organs like lungs, heart, liver, spleen.

Pelvis : Two innominate bones (3 bones fused into one on either side) and Sacrum (5 fused sacral bones of vertebral column) and Cooyx (4 fused bones of vertebral column) These make the pelvic cavity – protects all the pelvic organs, gives passage to blood vessels and nerves etc.

Upper Extremities : Clavicle and Scapula – Shoulder bones

Humerus – Bone from shoulder to elbow

Radius – Bone from elbow to thumb side

Ulna – Bone from elbow to little finger side

Carpus – Eiiight bones of wrist

Metacarpus – Five bones of the palm

Phalanges – Fourteen bones of fingers

These bones make the upper limb of the body. 

Lower Extremeties

Femur – Thigh bone, from help to knee

Patella – Knee cap

Tibia & Fibula – Bones of the leg

Tarsus – Seven bones of the heel and ankle

Metatarus – Five bones of the front of instep

Phalanges – Fourteen toe bones 

These bones make the lower limb of the body.

Function of bones

Protection, Support and blood formation

Position and function of soft tissues


1.                  Brain : Site of higher centre ; controls all bodily functions

2.                  Lung : Respiration

3.                  Heart : Blood Circulation

4.                  Diaphragm : Partition between thoracic cage and abdominal cavity, helps respiration, allows passage to oesophagus ( canal from mouth to stomach) aorta and vena cava

5.                  Stomach : Digestion

6.                  Intestines : Digestion, absorption and excretion

7.                  Liver : Blood formation, detoxication, bile production, metabolsim (chamical reactions)

8.                  Bladder & Kidney : Urine formation and excretions

9.                  Muscles : Shape, mechanical action & Strength

10.              Blood Vessels (Arteries, Vein & Capillaries ) : to carry blood.