What is fracture?

It is loss of continuity of the bone.

Types of fracture: There are two main types of fracture

1.      Simple (closed) Fracture without any break on the surface of skin; and outside air does not reach the broken bone.

2.      Compound (open) Fracture with break with break on the surface of skin and outside air reaches freely to the broken bone. 

There are several sub-types of these two main types of fractures



1.      Comminuted: When the number of broken pieces of bone are more than two.

2.      Impacted: when the broken ends are pushed into one another

3.      Greenstick: when the part of the bone gets bent; there is superficial and incomplete creack on the outser surface of skin. This is common with children’s bones, which are more flexible. Hence such cases are not met with in mines.

4.      Depressed: when a small area of the body surface is forced down, causing a local depression.

When the fractured part also disturbs the surrounding tissues like nerves, blood vessels, muscles, or adjacent vital organs like lungs, heart, liver, spleen, kidney etc,. it is termed as complicated fracture.

Symptoms of fracture:

Pain, swelling, deformity, loss of power.




1.      Do not attempt to move the patient from the site of accident. But if there is danger due to the fall of roof and sides or influx of noxious gases, the victim should be carefully removed to a safe place, even before rendering first aid.

2.      Do not attempt to reset the broken limb.

3.      Immobilise the broken with suitable splints.

4.      Bandage the broken part of body

5.      Combat shock

6.      Take victim quickly to the doctor.


The broken limb is immobilised with splints & triangular bandages; there are different methods of bandaging of different parts of the body. These should be carefully understood and then practiced repeatedly.

Indian Mining Legislation new Home Mining Consultant