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By the combined action of hearts, lungs, arteries, veins and capillaries, blood circulates all over the body. Blood provides life-giving oxygen and strength to the body.


It is the feeling of throb over an artery-commonly on the wrist due to hearts action. Normally the pulse beats at the rate of 72 times per minute.


Over body contiains about 5 liters of blood. Any bleeding due to bodily injuries, slows down blood circulation and accordingly oxygen supply to vital organs; thus the injured person passes into a stage of shock.

Arterial Bleeding

Blood is bright red, comes out in regular jerks, takes times stop even  firm pressure is applied. 

Venous Bleeding

Blood is dark red, flows out steadily and stops immediately on applying pressure.

Control of Arterial Bleeding

Put a sterile dressing, apply direct pressure with hand, wait for a few minutes and see.

If bleeding continues, apply tourniquet on the nearest pressure point towards the side of heart; loosen tourniquet every 15 mts. and see if bleeding has stopped.

In case bleeding still continues, put on pressure bandage, apply tourniquet and take the victim to the doctor.


It is an injury with break in continuity of tissues of the body, permitting escape of blood and entry of germs.

Type of Wound

1.      Incised – Caused by sharp instruments – like timberman’s axe, bleeds profusely.

2.      Lacerated – Caused by less sharp and heavy objects with severe pressure like tub wheels, engine couplings and other moving machinery. The edges of wound are irregular, free bleedings is less with big blood clot formation.

3.      Punctured – Caused by long, sharp and pointed objects, penetrating deep into the tissues – like needles / spindles of machine. Bleeding is moderate but chances of TETANUS infection is more.

4.      Contused – Caused by direct blow by blunt and heavy object – like falling mass of coal. Body is bruised, free bleeding is almost absent.

Dressing of Wounds


1.      Make the patient lie down; reassure

2.      Expose the injured part of body carefully and examine the wound. In case any foreign body is present, remove it if possible; but do not disturb the wound or blood clot.

3.      Arrest bleeding if there is any

4.      Clean the surrounding skin with a piece of cotton wool soaked in tincture of iodine or other antiseptic solution.

5.      Put a sterile dressing over the wound and bandage it.

6.      Combat shock

7.      Take the victim to the doctor quickly. In case victim has sustained injuries on his head, neck or back, do not make him walk, even if he is willing to do so ; transport him on stretcher only.


It is a disease which starts due to a wound only; and often turns fatal. 

Signs & Symptoms

Difficulty in movement of jaw – lockjaw, muscles of the affected part get taut, - this is a sign of local infection.

Stiff nick & back


Even a small cut/wound should be covered with a sterile dressing to prevent infection.

See your doctor immediately

Immunise, well in time, against tetanus.

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