Citing, References & Bibliographies

A Little About Citing - Definitions and General Rules

When do you make a reference?
  1. When you use a direct quote, Image, Video, or other intellectual property
  2. When you quote facts or figures (or use a pie chart/bar graph with statistics)
  3. When you use an idea that is not "common knowledge"
Works Cited (or References) - only lists items you have actually cited.
Bibliography - lists all of the material you’ve consulted for your report or essay, whether you've cited it or not.

For References or Bibliography, entries are put in alphabetical order by last names of authors, editors, translators, etc. or by first words of titles. If "The", "A", or "An", are used as articles in a title (e.g., A Raisin in the Sun), the entry is placed under the following word (Raisin). In the title, A Is for Africa, the entry is placed under A (as a noun not an article).
  • DO NOT number entries.
  • DO NOT list citations in separate categories. Place ALL references in ONE ALPHABETICAL LIST regardless of where citations come from.
  • Begin your bibliography on a new page.
  • Start about 1 inch down from the top, then center, and type one of the following titles: Works Cited, References, or Bibliography.
  • Double space after the title.
  • List all entries in alphabetical order by the first word, (see rules above about titles that begin with articles)
  • Begin the first line of each entry flush at the left margin. Keep typing until you run out of room at the end of the line.
  • Indent 5 spaces for all remaining lines of the same entry.
  • Double-space all lines, both within and between entries.

[Above information compiled most of the following from: http://www.aresearchguide.com/10works.html
based on the MLA Handbook:
Gibaldi, Joseph. MLA Handbook. 6th ed. New York: MLA, 2003.]

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For kids in younger grades (4th, 5th), you might find this example easier to follow than those below.
Also, there is a link on our own Library website to "How to Create a Bibliography."
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Following are numerous types of sources, and examples of how information that you collect should look like when cited properly.*


Articles From Magazines, Newspapers & Journals

 Article from a digital source (EBSCOhost, NewsBank or Opposing Viewpoints).


Your citation for an article from an electronic source should include these important elements:
Author. (if given)
"Article title"
Periodical title
Date of publication.
Database Name (NewsBank in this example)
Date of access

Example of how your entry should look:

Swist, Martin. "Wikipedia and Groucho"  New York Times. August 11, 2006 NewsBank. October 15, 2006

  Article from a Printed Periodical

 Wenger, Ty. "Wired hoops: How basketball has become the most wired game in sports? And what does that mean for hoops lovers? An obsessive-compulsive guide to b-ball." Yahoo!  March 2002: 56-59.

Your citation for an article from a printed source should include these important elements:
Author. (if given)
"Article title."
Periodical title
Date of publication.
Page numbers of the article (if given)

Answering :

Journal Article: Alzheimer's and Dementia

 Author's Last Name:
 Hayes    
 Author's First Name:
 Tamara

 Article Title:

Unobtrusive assessment of activity patterns associated with mild cognitive impairment

 Publication Title:
Alzheimer's and Dementia
 Volume, Issue
 Volume 4, Issue 6
Publishing Date:
Nov, 2008
 Page Numbers:
 395-405
 Organization: Alzheimer's Association
 Date Accessed:
 11 Dec 2008
 URL: http://www.alzheimersanddementia.org/article/PIIS1552526008028653/abstract


Example of how your entry should look:

Hayes, Tamara. "Unobtrusive assessment of activity patterns associated with mild cognitive impairment." Alzheimer's and Dementia Volume 4, Issue 6Nov, 2008 395-405. 11 Dec 2008 <http://www.alzheimersanddementia.org/article/PIIS1552526008028653/abstract>.

Books

Book with a Single Author or Editor

Example of how your entry should look:

Voelkel, James R. Johannes Kepler and the New Astronomy. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Book with more than one author or editor

Example of how your entry should look:

Yolen, Jane, and Bruce Coville. Armageddon Summer. New York: Harcourt Brace & Company, 1998.

Your citation for a book should include these important elements:
Author(s) or editor(s).
Title of the book.
Place of publication:
Publisher,
Date of publication.

Electronic Book

Example of how your entry should look:

Adams, Douglas.  The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy.  New York: Oxford  University Press, 1998.  <http://www.netlibrary.com>. January 1, 2002.

Your citation for an electronic book should include these important elements:
Author or editor.
Title of the book.
Place of publication:
Publisher,
Date of publication.
<Address of the site>.
Date you accessed it.

Short Story

Example of how your entry should look:

Connell, Richard. "The Most Dangerous Game." Short Stories: Characters In Conflict. Ed. John E. Warriner. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. Orlando. 1981. 1.

Your citation for a short story should include these important elements:

Author
"Title" of the short story
Title of the anthology
Editor of the anthology
Publisher and city
Page on which the story begins

Chart or Map

Example of how your entry should look:
Stars and Constellations. Chart. M. Ruskin. 1997

Your citation for e-mail should include these important elements:
Name of chart or map.
Format.
Publisher.
Location.
Year.

E-Mail

Example of how your entry should look:

Horowitz, Anthony. "Re: Sakura Medal" to Martin Swist, 8 June 2007

Your citation for e-mail should include these important elements:

Author's last name, first name
"Subject of the e-mail"
Recipient's name
Date e-mail was sent

Encyclopedias and other multi-volume works

Example of how your entry should look:

 Lehman, Jeffrey.  "French Americans: Bad advice given in good French."  Gale Encyclopedia of Multicultural America: Primary Documents. 2nd. ed. Vol.2, p 591.1999.

Your citation for an article from an encyclopedia should include these important elements:
Author (if given)
"Title of article"
Title of the encyclopedia
Volume number,
Page number.
Date of publication.

From an online encyclopedia:

Example of how your entry should look:

"Einstein, Albert." Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. 1999. Encyclopedia Britannica. 27 April 2004 <http://search.eb.com/bol/topic?eu=108494&sctn=1>

Your citation for an article from an online encyclopedia should include these important elements:
Author (if given)
"Title of article/page"
Title of the encyclopedia
Date published on the WWW (if available)
Publisher
Date you accessed the material
URL

If you like, use a chart to gather your info and organize it:

Online Encyclopedia: Wikipedia

 Page Title:

 Alzheimer's disease

 Site Title:
Wikipedia
 Last Revision Date:
8 Dec 2008
 Organization: Wikipedia Foundation
 Date Accessed:
 11 Dec 2008
 URL:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alzheimer's


Example of how your entry should look:

"Alzheimer's disease ." Wikipedia . 8 Dec 2008 . Wikipedia Foundation . 11 Dec 2008 < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alzheimer's>.


Image located through Google Images

Example of how your entry should look:

Kawasaki, Satoko. Bobby Valentine. October 14, 2005. The Japan Times www.japantimes.co.jp/ sports/2004bbpreview.htm October 27, 2005.

Click on the picture and then go to the website it came from. (It's listed at the top of the page.)

Your citation should contain the following information about the image:

Photographer's or artist's name (often not given)
Name of subject or title of picture
Date of picture (often not given)
Title of website
URL
Date you accessed the picture.
 

On-Line Listserv, Forum, or Discussion Group Posting

Example of how your entry should look:

Cheshire_Cow. Re: "Joey Pigza Swallowed the Key." Online posting. Saturday, March 09, 2002. Mustangs On Books. April 20, 2002.
<http://www.harmani.com/discus/index.html>.

Your citation for an on-line source should include these important elements:
Author.
"Title of posting."
Name of site host,
Date of posting.
URL of message site or archives.
Date of access.

Primary Sources

Interview

Example of how your entry should look:

Pumpkin, Great.  Interview with Charlie Brown.  Rec. October 31, 1990

Your citation for an interview should include these important elements:
Interviewee's name
Interviewer's name
Date conducted

Videos

Example of how your entry should look:

Finding Nemo.  Dir.  John Lasseter.  Walt Disney Pictures, 2003.

 

Web Pages

A Document on the World Wide Web

Example of how your entry should look:

Writer's Handbook: MLA Documentation.  University of Wisconsin-Madison. February 29, 2000. April 1, 2002. <http://www.wisc.edu/writing/Handbook/DocMLAWorksCited.html#book>

Your citation for a web page should include these important elements:
Author, if given
Title of work
Group responsible for the site, if given.
Date site was last updated
Date of access. |
URL of the site.

You can use a table to organize your answers:

Web Document: Alzheimer's Association

 Page Title:

What is Alzheimer's
 Site Title:
Alzheimer's Association
 Last Revision Date:
25 Nov 2008
 Organization: Alzheimer's Association
 Date Accessed:
 11 Dec 2008
 URL:  http://www.alz.org/alzheimers_disease_what_is_alzheimers.asp

Example of how your entry should look:

"What is Alzheimer's." Alzheimer's Association. 25 Nov 2008 . Alzheimer's Association. 11 Dec 2008 <http://www.alz.org/alzheimers_disease_what_is_alzheimers.asp>.


[*Most of above information was taken from "http://www.asij.ac.jp/middle/lib/BibliographyFormat/Bibliography%20Format.htm"]

[Following attachment from: http://www.aresearchguide.com/sampleworks.html]

ĉ
Andrea Orvik,
Feb 9, 2011, 12:27 PM
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