New book chapters

posted Jul 2, 2018, 2:05 AM by Heejung Chung   [ updated Jul 2, 2018, 2:06 AM ]

Two book chapters based on the Welfare State Futures project have been published.

  • Heejung ChungEmail author
  • Maša Filipovič Hrast
  • Tatjana Rakar
  1. 1.
  2. 2.
First Online: 28 June 2018


Preferences for future care arrangements are rooted in current care provision as well as ongoing debates, but also indicate dissatisfaction with and limits to the existing care regimes. In Norway, childcare debates are about the equal division of parental leave, in Germany, about the recognition of women’s unpaid work, in the UK, about the importance of cutting costs and using childcare to encourage women into paid work, and in Slovenia about the need for affordable childcare to enable families to survive. Debates about eldercare focus more on the desirability of family care in richer countries and on excessive costs in poorer ones.

The balance between economic and social framings varies. In the UK and Slovenia the primary concerns are economic and to do with costs and parental opportunities in the labour market. In the other countries social arguments about gender equality, the recognition of women’s contribution and the quality of care also emerge.


Work-life balance Care regime Childcare Gender Older care Social care Eldercare Work Emotional labour Care quality Cost 

  • Katharina ZimmermannEmail author
  • Heejung Chung
  • Jan-Ocko Heuer
  1. 1.
  2. 2.
First Online: 28 June 2018


Labour market issues were a major topic of discussion in all countries, but different aspects attracted attention: in Germany the key issues were precarious work, poor job conditions at the bottom end and the balance between work and family life; in the UK the strong work-first ethos dominated discussion; issues surrounding flexicurity (the cost of active labour market support and the extent of security) emerged in Denmark; and in Slovenia unemployment and living standards were the main focus. Immigrants were seen in different ways—as providing younger workers to balance ageing populations in Norway and Denmark, as requiring skill training and integration in Germany and as unwelcome competitors for jobs in the UK.

Social investment is valued everywhere for different reasons: for realigning the skills provided by education with those required by the market in Denmark; for producing more productive workers in the UK and Slovenia and enhancing opportunities so that individuals can take more responsibility for outcomes in the UK; and as compensating for inequalities in education and enhancing women’s opportunities in Germany.


Labour market Inequality Work ethic Work first Responsibility Unemployment Skills Social investment Inequality Training Opportunity Precarity Gender 

Special Issue of Social Policy & Administration

posted Jun 7, 2018, 6:38 AM by Heejung Chung   [ updated Jun 7, 2018, 6:38 AM ]

Along with Peter Taylor-Gooby, I have edited a special issue of the Social Policy & Administration journal bringing together four projects from the NORFACE Welfare State Futures grant that deals with welfare attitudes using advanced/state of the art techniques 

Many of the articles are open access!

  • Cover image
    Volume 52, Issue 4
    Political legitimacy and welfare state futures
    Pages: 835-927
    July 2018


Free Access

Issue Information

    • First Published: 03 June 2018


    Open Access

    Political legitimacy and welfare state futures: Introduction

    • Pages: 835-846
    • First Published: 24 April 2018

    Changing public support for welfare sanctioning in Britain and the Netherlands: A persuasion experiment

    • Pages: 847-861
    • First Published: 25 April 2018

    How to retrench the welfare state: Attitudes in the general population

    • Pages: 862-879
    • First Published: 25 April 2018
    Open Access

    The politics of credit claiming: Rights and recognition in health policy feedback

    • Pages: 880-894
    • First Published: 24 April 2018
    Open Access

    Migrants' support for welfare state spending in Denmark, Germany, and the Netherlands

    • Pages: 895-913
    • First Published: 25 April 2018
    Open Access

    The contribution of deliberative forums to studying welfare state attitudes: A United Kingdom study

    • Pages: 914-927
    • First Published: 25 April 2018

    Impact on UK's family policies

    posted Apr 9, 2018, 3:27 AM by Heejung Chung   [ updated Apr 16, 2018, 3:11 AM ]

    My ESRC project findings have been used as evidence for the Women & Equalities Select Committee's report on fathers and the workplace to inform policy about the right to request flexible working. More specifically, it touches upon the work regarding flexibility stigma and work cultures. Link to the report here.
    The project has also help shape the position of other groups crucial to this proposal such as Working Families - Jonathan Swan has been a part of the Work Autonomy Flexibility and work life balance project since the beginning of the project.

    New reports out

    posted Feb 22, 2018, 6:12 AM by Heejung Chung   [ updated Feb 22, 2018, 6:26 AM ]

    I've recently published two reports which also links to my project on flexible working

    The first is a report for the Estonian Parliament/Government as a part of their Future of Work project/taken place with the EU Estonian Presidency.
    This reports looks at the developments of flexible working in Estonia to anticipate future scenarios of what work will look like in Estonia in the future and possible policy adaptations needed.

    This second report is from the Chartered Management Institute's project on gender diversity in workplaces in the UK. It sets out six major themes that are pertinent in ensuring that workplaces enable women into senior management roles. One of the key themes was flexible working which heavily relies on the findings of my ESRC project. I have also help shape the survey which was used as a basis for this report.

    New Publication

    posted Feb 5, 2018, 11:41 PM by Heejung Chung   [ updated Feb 5, 2018, 11:43 PM ]

    New publication from the Work Autonomy, Flexibility and Work-life Balance project

    Dualization and the access to occupational family-friendly working-time arrangements across Europe


    Heejung Chung


    This article examines outsiders' relative access to occupational level family-friendly policies. I use data from the European Working Conditions Survey of 2015 across 30 European countries examining workers' access to two types of family-friendly working-time arrangements (WTAs): flexitime, and time off work for personal reasons. The article focuses on women with care responsibilities given that their demands for family-friendly policies, as well as their outcomes, have been shown to be distinct from the rest of the working population. In addition to the outsider definition used in the labor market dualization and occupational segmentation literature, i.e., low-skilled workers and those without a permanent contract, this article also defines outsiders as those perceiving their job as insecure. The results of the analysis show a segmentation between workers in their access to family-friendly policies. Unlike statutory policies, occupational policies seem to be selectively provided mostly to workers where employers have a vested interest, i.e., insiders, resulting in a dualized system for most countries. However, rather than their contract status, the skill-level of the job/workers, and their perceived insecurity were found to be important. The results further show that although Northern European and some continental European countries are those where family-friendly WTAs are more readily available, it is in these countries where the division between insiders and outsiders is the greatest. The results of the article contribute to the literature by showing a need to move beyond the national level when examining family-friendly policies, and to examine a more diverse definition of outsiders when examining dualization of working conditions.

    New Publication

    posted Jan 23, 2018, 6:40 AM by Heejung Chung   [ updated Jan 30, 2018, 3:30 AM ]

    New publication from the Work, Autonomy, Flexibility and Work-life Balance project

    Chung, Heejung (2018) 'Women's Work Penalty' in access to flexible working arrangements across Europe. European Journal of Industrial Relations. Online first. (open access)

    ‘Women’s work penalty’ in access to flexible working arrangements across Europe

    First Published January 22, 2018 Research Article


      Many assume that women and workers in female-dominated workplaces will have better access to flexible working arrangements. Some use this as justification for the low wages found in these workplaces. Yet, empirical results are mixed. I explore this question by examining workers’ access to schedule control across 27 European countries, and find no discernible gender differences in access to schedule control when individual and company-level characteristics are taken into account. However, working in female-dominated jobs and/or sectors significantly reduces access to schedule control for both men and women. This ‘women’s work penalty’ in female-dominated sectors varies across Europe but nowhere was the access better compared to sectors where both genders are equally represented. This raises concerns regarding the lack of favourable working conditions, in addition to low pay found in female-dominated workplaces.

      Some news coverage of this piece includes:

      New publication

      posted Jan 12, 2018, 2:38 AM by Heejung Chung

      New journal article published - based on the Welfsoc project/NORFACE welfare state futures

      This article uses deliberative forums to examine attitudes to UK welfare futures. It makes methodological, empirical and theoretical contributions to the field. We demonstrate the value of the approach, provide insights into attitudes, in particular about priorities and how people link ideas together, and show how the UK’s neoliberal market-centredness fits with enthusiasm for state healthcare and pensions, desire to close national labour markets to immigrants and approval of government interventions to expand opportunities for those who make the effort. Findings point to the strength of the work ethic and individual responsibility alongside a regret that major and highly valued state services appear unsustainable, the construction of immigrants as simultaneously a burden on provision and unfair labour-market competitors, and backing for the development of a ‘new risk’ welfare state through social investment. The study reveals the complexity of responses to current challenges in an increasingly liberal-leaning welfare state.

      Impact on the European Commissions' proposal on work-life balance

      posted Dec 18, 2017, 9:27 AM by Heejung Chung   [ updated Dec 18, 2017, 9:33 AM ]

      The results from my ESRC funded project on flexible working ( has been making some significant impact on the shaping of the European Commissions' proposed directive on the work-life balance of working parents and care givers.

      It has helped build capacity of, to shape the position of the key family advocacy group at the European level (COFACE/Families Europe)
      and has been cited as the only source of evidence in the section on flexible working of the opinion by the European Economic Social Committee, to support the commission's proposal on providing flexible working rights to parents/carers. 

      Top Finalist for the Rosabeth Moss Kanter Award for Excellence in Work-Family Research

      posted Sep 11, 2017, 7:55 AM by Heejung Chung

      Heejung's article "Gender discrepanies in the outcomes of schedule control on overtime hours and income in Germany" has been selected as one of five finalists for the annual Rosabeth Moss Kanter Award for Excellence in Work-Family Research. The finalists were nominated and reviewed by over 60 leading scholars and chosen from over 2500 articles published in 65 leading English-language journals from around the world. The winner will be announced at the Boston College Workforce Roundtable Meeting in October. This ESRC funded project paper gathered approximately 0.5 million pounds worth of news coverage across more than 15 countries in dozen different languages with an estimated reach of 30million people.

      New publication: Women's employment & flexible working

      posted Sep 1, 2017, 6:46 AM by Heejung Chung   [ updated Sep 1, 2017, 6:48 AM ]

      A new publication out from the WAFproject

      Click below for the article - no paywall!

      Women’s employment patterns after childbirth and the perceived access to and use of flexitime and teleworking

      First Published August 17, 2017 Research Article


      This article sets out to investigate how flexitime and teleworking can help women maintain their careers after childbirth. Despite the increased number of women in the labour market in the UK, many significantly reduce their working hours or leave the labour market altogether after childbirth. Based on border and boundary management theories, we expect flexitime and teleworking can help mothers stay employed and maintain their working hours. We explore the UK case, where the right to request flexible working has been expanded quickly as a way to address work–life balance issues. The dataset used is Understanding Society (2009–2014), a large household panel survey with data on flexible work. We find some suggestive evidence that flexible working can help women stay in employment after the birth of their first child. More evidence is found that mothers using flexitime and with access to teleworking are less likely to reduce their working hours after childbirth. This contributes to our understanding of flexible working not only as a tool for work–life balance, but also as a tool to enhance and maintain individuals’ work capacities in periods of increased family demands. This has major implications for supporting mothers’ careers and enhancing gender equality in the labour market.

      1-10 of 41