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Green algae

Land plants (embryophytes)


Plants are living organisms belonging to the kingdom Plantae. They include familiar organisms such as treesherbsbushesgrassesvinesfernsmosses, and green algae. The scientific study of plants, known as botany, has identified about 350,000 extant speciesof plants, defined as seed plantsbryophytesferns and fern allies. As of 2004, some 287,655 species had been identified, of which 258,650 are flowering and 18,000 bryophytes (see table below). Green plants, sometimes called Viridiplantae, obtain most of their energy fromsunlight via a process called photosynthesis.

 divided all living things between plants (which generally do not move), and animals (which often are mobile to catch their food). In Linnaeus' system, these became theKingdoms Vegetabilia (later Metaphyta or Plantae) and Animalia (also called Metazoa). Since then, it has become clear that the Plantae as originally defined included several unrelated groups, and the fungi and several groups of algae were removed to new kingdoms. However, these are still often considered plants in many contexts, both technical and popular.


Current definitions of Plantae

When the name Plantae or plants is applied to a specific taxon, it is usually referring to one of three concepts. From smallest to largest in inclusiveness, these three groupings are:

Land plants, also known as Embryophyta or Metaphyta.Plantaesensu strictissimoAs the narrowest of plant categories, this is further delineated below.
Green plants - also known asViridiplantae,Viridiphyta orChlorobiontaPlantaesensu strictoComprise the above Embryophytes, Charophyta (i.e., primitive stoneworts), and Chlorophyta (i.e., green algae such as sea lettuce). Viridiplantae encompasses a group of organisms that possess chlorophyll a and b, have plastidsthat are bound by only two membranes, are capable of storing starch, and have cellulose in their cell walls. It is thisclade which is mainly the subject of this article.
Archaeplastida, Plastida or PrimoplantaePlantaesensu latoComprises the green plants above, as well as Rhodophyta(red algae) and Glaucophyta (simple glaucophyte algae). As the broadest plant clade, this comprises most of theeukaryotes that eons ago acquired their chloroplasts directly by engulfing cyanobacteria.

Outside of formal scientific contexts, the term "plant" implies an association with certain traits, such as multicellularity, cellulose, and photosynthesis.[2][3] Many of the classification controversies involve organisms that are rarely encountered and are of minimal apparent economic significance, but are crucial in developing an understanding of the evolution of modern flora.


Main article: Algae

Most algae are no longer classified within the Kingdom Plantae.[4][5] The algae comprise several different groups of organisms that produce energy through photosynthesis, each of which arose independently from separate non-photosynthetic ancestors. Most conspicuous among the algae are the seaweeds, multicellular algae that may roughly resemble terrestrial plants, but are classified among the greenred, and brown algae. Each of these algal groups also includes various microscopic and single-celled organisms.

The two groups of green algae are the closest relatives of land plants (embryophytes). The first of these groups is the Charophyta (desmids and stoneworts), from which the embryophytes developed.[6][7][8] The sister group to the combined embryophytes and charophytes is the other group of green algae, Chlorophyta, and this more inclusive group is collectively referred to as the green plants or Viridiplantae. The Kingdom Plantae is often taken to mean this monophyleticgrouping. With a few exceptions among the green algae, all such forms have cell walls containingcellulose, have chloroplasts containing chlorophylls a and b, and store food in the form of starch. They undergo closed mitosis without centrioles, and typically have mitochondria with flat cristae.

The chloroplasts of green plants are surrounded by two membranes, suggesting they originated directly from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria. The same is true of two additional groups of algae: theRhodophyta (red algae) and Glaucophyta. All three groups together are generally believed to have a common origin, and so are classified together in the taxon Archaeplastida. In contrast, most other algae (e.g. heterokontshaptophytesdinoflagellates, and euglenids) have chloroplasts with three or four surrounding membranes. They are not close relatives of the green plants, presumably acquiring chloroplasts separately from ingested or symbiotic green and red algae.


Main article: Fungi

The classification of fungi has been controversial until quite recently in the history of biology. Linnaeus' original classification placed the fungi within the Plantae, since they were unquestionably not animalian; this being the only other alternative. With later developments inmicrobiology, in the 19th century Ernst Haeckel felt that a third kingdom was required to classify newly discovered micro-organisms. The introduction of the new kingdom Protista as an alternative to Animalia, led to uncertainty as to whether fungi truly were best placed in the Plantae or whether they ought to be reclassified as protists. Haeckel himself found it difficult to decide and it was not until 1969 that a solution was found whereby Robert Whittaker proposed the creation of the kingdom Fungi. Molecular evidence has since shown that theconcestor (last common ancestor) of the Fungi was probably more similar to that of the Animalia than of any other kingdom, including the Plantae.

Whittaker's original reclassification was based on the fundamental difference in nutrition between the Fungi and the Plantae. Unlike plants, which are generally autotrophic multicellular phototrophs which gain carbon through photosynthesis, fungi are generally heterotrophic uni- or multi-cellular saprotrophs, obtaining carbon by breaking down and absorbing surrounding materials. In addition, the substructure of multicellular fungi takes the form of many chitinous microscopic strands called hyphae, which may be further subdivided into cells or may form a syncytium containing many eukaryotic nuclei. Fruiting bodies, of which mushrooms are most familiar example, are the reproductive structures of fungi.