This page includes lists of data sources, articles cited on this website, and related articles that may be of interest to those wanting to further research the relationship between heavy metals, crops, gardens, risk assessment, and Environmental Justice.  For more details on the project, a free download of the thesis is available here or by searching online for Growing Greens and Soiled Soil Additional websites that include useful resources can be found on the Resources & Discussion page.

Data Sources

California Department of Public Health. California Code of Regulations, Environmental Health Standards for the Management of Hazardous Waste. Retrieved 01/02/2011. from

Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (2010). Soil-Screening Numbers (mg/kg soil) for Nonvolatile Chemicals Based on Total Exposure to Contaminated Soil: Inhalation, Ingestion and Dermal Absorption. Retrieved 2/12/2011. from

U.S. Census Bureau (2000). Demographic Profile Fact Sheet by Zipcode. Retrieved July 24, 2009:

U.S. Census Bureau (2003). Population and race data by block group.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (Revised 1997). 40CFR503: Protection of Environment. from

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2011). Regional Screening Level (RSL) Summary Table June 2011. Retrieved 6/29/2011. from

Cited Articles

Bassuk, N. L. (1986). Reducing Lead Uptake in Lettuce. HortScience, 21(4), 993-995.

Clark, H. F., Brabander, D. J., & Erdil, R. M. (2006). Sources, sinks, and exposure pathways of lead in urban garden soil. [Article]. Journal of Environmental Quality, 35(6), 2066-2074.

Clark, H. F., Hausladen, D. M., & Brabander, D. J. (2008). Urban gardens: Lead exposure, recontamination mechanisms, and implications for remediation design. Environmental Research, 107, 312-319.

Farias, P., Borja-Aburto, V. H., Rios, C., Hertz-Picciotto, I., Rojas-Lopez, M., & Chavez-Ayala, R. (1996). Blood Lead Levels in Pregnant Women of High and Low Socioeconomic Status in Mexico City. Environmental Health Perspectives, 104(10), 1070-1074.

Finster, M. E., Gray, K. A., & Binns, H. J. (2004). Lead levels of edibles grown in contaminated residential soils: a field survey. [Article]. Science of the Total Environment, 320(2-3), 245-257.

Gadepalle, V. P., Ouki, S. K., Van Herwijnen, R., & Hutchings, T. (2008). Effects of amended compost on mobility and uptake of arsenic by rye grass in contaminated soil. Chemosphere, 72(7), 1056-1061.

Gardea-Torresdey, J. L., Peralta-Videa, J. R., de la Rosa, G., & Parsons, J. G. (2005). Phytoremediation of heavy metals and study of the metal coordination by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Coordination Chemistry Reviews, 249(17-18), 1797-1810.

Grant, C. A., Buckley, W. T., Bailey, L. D., & Selles, F. (1998). Cadmium accumulation in crops. [Review]. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 78(1), 1-17.

Intawongse, M., & Dean, J. R. (2006). Uptake of heavy metals by vegetable plants grown on contaminated soil and their bioavailability in the human gastrointestinal tract. [Article]. Food Additives and Contaminants, 23(1), 36-48. 

Jiang, X. J., Luo, Y. M., Liu, Q., Liu, S. L., & Zhao, Q. G. (2004). Effects of Cadmium on Nutrient Uptake and Translocation by Indian Mustard. Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 26(2), 319-324.

Mahaffey, K. R. (1990). Environmental Lead Toxicity: Nutrition As a Component of Intervention. Environmental Health Perspectives, 89, 75-78.

Peralta-Videa, J. R., Lopez, M. L., Narayan, M., Saupe, G., & Gardea-Torresdey, J. (2009). The biochemistry of environmental heavy metal uptake by plants: Implications for the food chain. The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology, 41(8-9), 1665-1677.

Pillay, V., & Jonnalagadda, S. B. (2007). Elemental uptake by edible herbs and lettuce (Latuca sativa). [Article]. Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part B-Pesticides Food Contaminants and Agricultural Wastes, 42(4), 423-428.

Sipter, E., Rozsa, E., Gruiz, K., Tatrai, E., & Morvai, V. (2008). Site-specific risk assessment in contaminated vegetable gardens. Chemosphere, 71(7), 1301-1307.

Related Articles

Adler, N. E., & Newman, K. (2002). Socioeconomic Disparities In Health: Pathways And Policies. Health Affairs, 21(2), 60-76.

Aelion, C. M., Davis, H. T., McDermott, S., & Lawson, A. B. (2009). Soil metal concentrations and toxicity: Associations with distances to industrial facilities and implications for human health. [Article]. Science of the Total Environment, 407(7), 2216-2223.

Alaimo, K., Packnett, E., Miles, R. A., & Kruger, D. J. (2008). Fruit and vegetable intake among urban community gardeners. [Article]. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 40(2), 94-101.

Diamond, M. L., & Hodge, E. (2007). Urban Contamination Dynamics: From Source to Effect. Environmental Science & Technology, 41(11), 3796-3803.

Diawara, M. M., Litt, J. S., Unis, D., Alfonso, N., Martinez, L., Crock, J. G., et al. (2006). Arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury in surface soils, Pueblo, Colorado: implications for population health risk. [Article]. Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 28(4), 297-315.

Downey, L., Dubois, S., Hawkins, B., & Walker, M. (2008). Environmental inequality in metropolitan America. Organization & Environment, 21(3), 270-294.

Hafen, M. R., & Brinkmann, R. (1996). Analysis of lead in soils adjacent to an interstate highway in Tampa, Florida. Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 18(4), 171-179.

Hough, R. L., Breward, N., Young, S. D., Crout, N. M. J., Tye, A. M., Moir, A. M., et al. (2004). Assessing potential risk of heavy metal exposure from consumption of home-produced vegetables by urban populations Environmental Health Perspectives, 112(5), 215-221.

Magkos, F., Arvaniti, F., & Zampelas, A. (2006). Organic Food: Buying More Safety or Just Peace of Mind? A Critical Review of the Literature. Critical Reviews in Food Science & Nutrition, 46(1), 23-56.

Markus, J. A., & McBratney, A. B. (1996). An urban soil study: Heavy metals in Glebe, Australia. [Article]. Australian Journal of Soil Research, 34(3), 453-465.

Morello-Frosch, R., Pastor, M., & Sadd, J. (2001). Environmental Justice and Southern California's "Riskscape": The Distribution of Air Toxics Exposures and Health Risks among Diverse Communities. Urban Affairs Review, 36(4), 551-578.

Zheng, N., Wang, Q. C., & Zheng, D. M. (2007). Health risk of Hg, Pb, Cd, Zn, and Cu to the inhabitants around Huludao Zinc Plant in china via consumption of vegetables. [Article]. Science of the Total Environment, 383(1-3), 81-89.