ICE PLANT RESTAURANT & BAR (Greensboro, Greene County) The Laurel Highlands building once featured an icehouse and soda fountain on the first floor and a dance hall on the second. Since the mid-nineties, it's been a bar/restaurant, but it seems some of the old folks liked the social life so much that they stayed around. This is particularly true of the bar/dance hall areas, which are the oldest part of the building. Bodiless voices, the sense of being watched and misty apparitions have been reported. The building was gutted by a fire in 2014, but the owners hope to rebuild. The Western PA Paranormal Hunters investigated and came up with a few voices on EVP.
ICM SCHOOL OF BUSINESS (Downtown, Pittsburgh) A 20 year veteran staffer of the Wood Street school died of a heart attack in her office after unfairly (to her, anyway) losing a promotion. Ever since, her apparition has reportedly been seen walking the halls at night. The Shadowlands
INDIAN SPRINGS (Ross Township, Allegheny County) This is a bit of Native American lore dating back to pre-European times. A princess was in love with a regular hoi polloi member of her tribe; her father, the chief, would have none of that marrying below your status stuff and promised her to another chief's son. The prince came to claim his princess; she fled into the woods, followed by her betrothed and her lover. She ran until she passed out; her lover killed the chief's son, and lay by her, badly wounded and knocking on heaven's door. (Other versions of the tale say the pair escaped the village, pursued by tribesmen). Touching hands and near death, they prayed to the Great Spirit who formed a spring out of solid rock for their succor. Legend says the couple drank from it and lived happily ever after. The spring, in Evergreen Community Park, was a popular "fountain of youth" tourist site in its early days, but fell into disuse to the point that it could barely be found any longer. Then the Boy Scouts came to the rescue. The Scouts cleaned the pool that collects the water, cleared the paths leading to the spring and installed a bench nearby. It was dedicated in late 2010. (Pittsburgh Tribune Review "Storied Indian Spring Restored In Ross" October 16, 2010)
ISLAND IN THE MON (Downtown, Pittsburgh) This is a true legend. The 1795 there was large island in the middle of the Monongahela River, stretching from the Point to Grant Street. It was used as buckwheat fields in the late 1790s. A major flood between 1794 – 1795 deposited the material that created it. The island then lasted until at least 1815. A sketch of Pittsburgh in 1817 doesn't show it, but an 1825-1826 map shows the island as a “sand bar dry at low water.” There wasn't even time to give it a proper name. But for a few brief years, the fast flowing Monongahela River sported its’ first – and only – island. Island In The Mon - Pitt Geo Site
JONES & LAUGHLIN STEEL (South Side, Pittsburgh) Jim Grabowski had a bad day at the mill in 1922. He tripped over a rigger's hose and fell into a vat of 3,000 degree molten steel. His vaporized body was never recovered, and the steel was allowed to solidify into an ingot and buried in the yard. It's said you could hear Grabowski crying for help or laughing maniacally on the mill floor of the #2 melt shop before it was razed in 1960. Other tales claimed that in the years since that tragedy, millhands would spot an unknown man up on the shop's catwalk, who would disappear when employees clambered up to look for him. This was an enduring yarn among J&L workers. The old melt shop site is now part of the upscale South Side Works Hofbrauhaus tavern. American Folklore (In Pittsburgh “Tales From Pittsburgh's Dark Side,” October 28, 1993)
JUDGE REDDICK'S GRAVE (Kendall, Beaver County) Old Judge Reddick raised horses. He often bragged that his steeds could beat the best anyone else owned. His braggadocio reached the ears of Satan, who took up the challenge – gold if the Judge won, John Reddick's soul if old Scratch won. They met at midnight, and every time the Judge's horse pulled ahead, the Devil's mount blew fire on it. Guess who won? When Reddick was ready to give up the ghost, he made a strange request of his family. He wanted buried squarely between the Pennsylvania and Virginia border (The West Virginia Panhandle, which reaches north to the Ohio River, was then still part of Ol' Virginny). That's when the lawyer in Judge Reddick shined through. When Satan came callin' for his soul, the Judge demanded extradition papers. After all, where he was heading was well out of the state. When the Devil got the Pennsylvania papers, Reddick rolled over to to the Virginia side of his crypt. When he came with Virginia papers, the Judge rolled over to Pennsylvania. This went on until the statute of limitations ran out on Satan's contract. Did it really happen that way? Well, go ask the Judge. He did exist, serving on the bench from 1804-1830 while living on his Hanover Township farm. And his tomb sits alone on PA route 168, resting a few hundred yards west of Kendall, on the Pennsylvania – West Virginia state border. And Judge Reddick really did outsmart Ol' Scratch. When surveyors came around to check the new West Virginia – Pennsylvania line, they found out that Reddick was actually mistakenly buried 10 feet inside the PA line. His soul was Satan's for the taking all along, proper papers or not. The Devil's Due: Judge Reddick's Grave
KANE HOSPITAL (Scott Twp., Allegheny County) The hospital opened in 1958, and was supposed to be the most modern nursing home in the area. But it failed on a couple of counts. First, it held 2,100 patients, and secondly, there were no private rooms, only 16-bed wards. Kane was allegedly a hot spot for psychic activity. There was a large white figure that roamed the grounds, shadowy mists that darted down the hallways, and phantom screams, footsteps, and voices. It was sold in 1994 and razed in 2000. The Shadowlands
KAUFMANN'S DEPARTMENT STORE (Downtown, Pittsburgh) The tenth floor is reportedly haunted by one of Major Grant's French and Indian War era Highlanders, killed when fighting on Grant's Hill, once a prominent Pittsburgh feature but leveled many years ago. The tenth floor is supposed to be the same height as Grant's Hill was at the time of the battle, before it was graded. Kaufmann's was sold and is now Macy's. The Shadowlands
KDKA-TV STUDIO (Downtown Pittsburgh, Allegheny County) The spook of departed facilities manager Julian Drobs is said to be lingering in the studios. Drobs was a busy dude, and it was said he left behind some unfinished business he wanted to attend to when he died of a heart attack in 1963. He manifests himself by turning on the lights, and he's been known to flip through the pages of unattended paperwork, the sheets turning by themselves as he reads through them. They even held an exorcism for him - and found two candles in his old office the next day. Even in death, nothing was going to slip by him. This tale was found in Hans Holzer's Ghosts I've Met.
KENNYWOOD PARK (West Mifflin, Allegheny County) One of the workmen building Kennywood's Steel Phantom roller coaster died in an accident when a bolt loosened and a piece of the ride fell, crushing him. It's said that if you're on the ride at 9:30 PM, you can hear his screams as he relives the accident. Sometimes you can see his ghost climbing up the coaster. But The Shadowlands site says it's false; the timeline (which we never found) is wrong, and no accident was ever reported during the building of the Steel Phantom. We guess you gotta wait to get your chills and thrills on Phantom Fright Night. The Shadowlands
KNOB HILL BARN (Cranberry, Butler County) The current barn is a replacement of one that hosted a wild rock show in the early 1990's and was burned down in the process. Locals have to call the police to quiet the teens who seem to party there often, noisily and with their cars scattered around the barn. But when the police get there, there are no kids or cars. Maybe the homeowners have a long memory or maybe the original 90's crowd really liked the show and keep sending their spirits back to the nosh pit. The barn is part of the 116 acre Knob Hill Park, so we assume it gets its' fair share of use, live customers or otherwise. The Shadowlands
BETTY KNOX (Betty Knox Park, Dunbar, Fayette County) Between Ohiopyle and Dunbar in Pennsylvania's Fayette County lies the Dunbar Mountains, and that's where Betty Knox and her legend originate. Betty was born in 1842 on a farm at Kentuck Knob atop the Great Gorge of the Youghiogheny (now Ohiopyle State Park). Her mother died when she was three, and her father raised her as a son. She did all the hard work of a nineteenth century farmer, clearing, plowing, planting, weeding, and reaping. In between, she raised the cattle, cut the wood, drove the ox teams, and of course cooked the meals. When she was seventeen, her father died, and she was left to her own devices. Betty, despite the hard work, had turned out to be a beautiful, flaxen-haired girl, and had no shortage of suitors, being lovely, single, and a property owner. But she spurned all the locals and lived a solitary life. Knox earned her daily bread by hauling grain to Ferguson's Mill near Dunbar, powered by her oxen, and returned with flour, a day-long, twenty-five mile trek. In fact, she traveled such an undeviating route that she carved her own trail through the forest. Where her journey crossed Dunbar creek is still known locally as Betty Knox Park, along with the fresh water spring that she lined with stone. One evening in 1862, while on the way home from the mill, she found a badly wounded soldier, who told her he had deserted from the Union Army. Betty took the soldier home, hid him from the Army, and nursed his wounds. She became smitten by her soldier, but despite long months of Betty's TLC, he finally died. Knox, although heartbroken, returned to her routine. Years later, Betty Knox, who had never missed a day of work in her life, suddenly quit showing up to collect the farmer's grain. Alarmed, the neighbors went to her home to see if she was sick, but the house was empty. Search parties swept the forest and retraced her trail, but found not a sign of her. Theories concerning her disappearance abounded. Some claimed that wolves or a panther had attacked her, while others darkly speculated that a rejected lover had ambushed her, or perhaps a gang of thieves. Others thought that she had never gotten over losing her soldier and plunged to her death in the Yough. It may have been that she was just tired of her life in the woods, pulled up roots, and found a new home. To this day, no one really knows. The following spring some children found the skeleton of an ox chained to a tree near Betty's spring; odd, because that very trail had been scoured by her search party without finding the ox, and also because Knox never used a chain on her animals. Still, that didn't explain what happened to Betty Knox. But one thing is certain - Betty Knox is still around, at least in spirit. Young couples out for a late night drive claim to hear the mournful lolling of oxen miles from the nearest farm. Park visitors report hearing her sobbing. Sportsmen tell of a pale feminine form that flickers through the trees before daylight. Others report seeing a woman leading an oxen team along the trail. And on some dark nights, the pained voice of a young man can be barely heard whispering "Betty Knox, Betty Knox." (As a footnote, you may not have to worry about running into Betty's ghost. An enterprising local claimed to have captured it in a mason jar, and sold it on eBay for $2.51. Now there's a legend for you, and at a blue light price!) If you're curious, Betty Knox Park is now part of the State Gamelands, located off Dunbar - Ohiopyle Road about three miles from Dunbar. Look for a Game Commission building on the right at a sharp curve. The gravel road to right of the shed (called "Betty Knox Road" but without any signage) will take you along Dunbar Creek to where Betty's oxen were found. Her tale is recounted in Ceane O'Hanlon-Lincoln's book County Chronicles. Haunted Fayette County
LADY OF THE LAKE INN (Ligonier, Westmoreland County) The Lady of the Lake bed and breakfast has three different houses to stay in on a 60 acre site with a lake, and was a popular stop over for folk like Andre Previn and Mia Farrow. The oldest building, a 120 year old farmhouse known as the Icehouse (not because it's cold but because it's actually a remodeled 1880's icehouse) is reputed to have a resident spook, according to guests.
LARDIN HOUSE (Masontown, Fayette County) The original Lardin House was built in 1769, and has been a distillery, farm, and Underground RR stop. In fact, there is a private graveyard on the premises for the Lardin family and their workers, many of whom were freemen. Now it's a restaurant. There's been stories of poltergeist activity in the attic and what's now the barroom of the building, thought to be caused by the spirit of Lardin's daughter and her childhood friends. (And don't light up a cigar after dinner; that'll really set them off!) There's also been alleged sightings of an Indian, though we're not sure where he fits in. The house's history, spooky and otherwise, is in Ceane O'Hanlon-Lincoln's County Chronicles.
LARIMER MANSION (North Huntington, Westmoreland County) The home was built by William Larimer in 1790 on the former site of the Three Springs Camp, where George Washington and General Braddock stayed during the French and Indian War, and is listed under the National Historic Register as the Andrew & Jennie McFarlane House. McFarlane acquired the property after marrying Larimer's daughter, Jennie, who died during childbirth. But it's got a lot of history. It's owner - it's now a B&B - says says the home was later owned by a corrupt banker who turned it into a brothel, and his soul and possibly some of the ladies still call the mansion home. Another owner was a notorious gambler. People have reported seeing his mother in the window, as she paces from room to room, waiting for her son to return from a bender. Another ghost is the soul of a deceased Native American man who does not seem to know he's died. Some have claimed to hear him utter “Me No Die.” Perhaps the most active spirit is the one called “Maggie,” who they believe to be the ghost of Margaret Ann Larimer, who died during childbirth in the 1800s. She's been known to sway in a rocking chair in one of the guest bedrooms and is a friendly spirit - she even came to one of the owners in a dream to warn her of a basement fire. Customers have seen a lady in the front dressed in colonial period outfits. There's a picture on the wall, and the people painted in the background seem to change every time one looks at it. Children's spirits reside in the attic and the owner claimes that some “crabbier ghosts” are in the basement. Ed Ozosky, Hauntings Research founder who has conducted paranormal research there for four years said “We cannot find a logical explanation or scientific explanation. Larimer Mansion is one of the consistently most active paranormal sites in the country.” The tale was chronicled by Rachel Weaver of the Pittsburgh Tribune Review, Kathy Samudovsky of the Post-Gazette and put into documentary form by WQED-TV, with Halloween season ghost tours.
LARRY'S ROAD HOUSE (Brookline, Pittsburgh) The old converted mansion on Whited Street has been many things since it was built circa 1850. It was an inn along an old railroad stop, a place that rented funeral carriages, allegedly a brothel, a private residence, and now Larry's Road House, a bar/restaurant. There have been several suspicious deaths in the building. A pregnant woman allegedly fell down the second floor stairway, killing herself and her unborn child. On the third floor, the spookiest area of the house, a judge hanged himself in the 1900's and another nameless soul fell out the window to the great beyond. There have been reports of several poltergeist-like activities, such as electrical disturbances and objects disappearing or being tossed around. Other phenomena include chairs moving & levitating, disembodied footsteps & voices, and the sighting of a misty Victorian era woman on the second floor landing. Raw Fear
LAUREL CAVERNS (Laurel Caverns, Fayette County) The Laurel Cavern, also known as Delaney's Cave, is the largest cave system in Pennsylvania and on many tourists' must-see list. If you take the tour, keep your eyes peeled. It's supposed to be home to the spook of a French soldier decked out in his colonial era blue uniform. The cave may have been a military warehouse back in the day (it's dry and stays at a constant 52 degrees), and the soldier looks like he's pulling eternal guard duty. There's also a gravity hill slope in the caves, where objects appear to roll uphill. The sighting is taken from Ceane O'Hanlon-Lincoln's County Chronicles.
LAVENDER HILL (Penn Hills, Allegheny County) Now doing business as the Flowers In The Attic Restaurant and Gift Shop, it's said that you can hear the footsteps of the last private owner of the home, Clare Greer. The Angel2Ladies psychic group visited, and have no doubt Clare's spirit still roams the building. They said she's a happy spirit who loves to entertain, and what better spot to do that than a restaurant? (Woodland Progress "If One Believes - Area Is Rich With Settings For Supernatural," October 24, 2007)
LAWRENCE HALL (Downtown, Pittsburgh) A converted downtown building, built originally in 1928 as the Keystone Athletic Club, Lawrence Hall is now a dorm for Point Park University. But one room on the tenth floor sat vacant for years. The tale goes that a student fell asleep while smoking and started a fire that sent her to her doom (the university admits that there was a fire, but claims the room was unoccupied). The school rehabbed the room, and a new student moved in. But the walls charred black after a couple of weeks, freaking the student out of both her mind and the room. The room was repainted every year, but the walls still charred, and Point Park gave up, eventually closing the room. The University has just finished renovating the historic building; maybe the room will like its look and behave for its new residents. Another legend involves Judge Michael Musmanno, who lived in the building back in the sixties when it was the Sherwyn Hotel. He stayed in room 1917, often walking the halls in his black robe, and is said to still be around today. The ghost of Musmanno is known by the residents as "The Shuffler" because of the sounds he makes throughout the night. "Shuffles" gets the blame for moving objects around, opening the blinds in the middle of the night and playing elevator tricks on the students. (Point Park Globe "More Than Students Roam The Halls" Wednesday, April 15, 2009)
290 LEXINGTON COURT (Carnegie, Allegheny County) This apartment house, dating back to 1916, reportedly has a boatload of spirits in it. First, there's Jack, who has dark hair, glasses, and wears a flannel shirt. He prefers to haunt the basement. There's the elderly lady in a blue dress. She likes it upstairs, where she peeks around the corners of the hallway. Then there's the young boy that likes to tug and rub your leg when you're eating or watching TV. The spooks there also get involved in poltergeist activities – doors opening and slamming shut, deadbolts locking from the inside, pictures flying off the wall, and one room where a tenant was thrown off her bed to the floor. A team from the Pittsburgh Paranormal Society investigated the house, and came away believers. The team leader said “I've been hunting ghosts since 1992...And I can tell you honestly and truthfully that this house is full of them”. (Gateway Signal newspapers “Is This House Haunted? Paranormals Think So,” October 25, 2006)
LG GRAPHICS (Swissvale, Allegheny County) The business is haunted by a spirit whose footsteps can be heard going up and down the basement stairs, that opens and shuts doors, and causes disturbances in upstairs rooms. He's also been spotted roaming the offices, along with some other spooks. We can't find a local business by that name, so either the ghosties or the economy drove it out of business. Psychoasylum
LIBERACE'S NUN IN WHITE (Bloomfield, Pittsburgh) On November 23, 1963, Liberace was scheduled to play a gig at Monroeville's Holiday House. Assuming the show would be canceled because of JFK's assassination, he busied himself with cleaning his costumes. He used a cleaning solvent with the potent carbon tetrachloride as its' base. He napped once or twice in the unventilated room, and it almost cost him his life. While performing, he collapsed on stage and was rushed to St. Francis Hospital, suffering from kidney failure from inhaling the deadly fumes. The doctors told him to get his affairs in order while hooking him up to a new device for that time, a dialysis machine. He was given a 20% chance of surviving. During the long night he dreamed of many things. But the one vision he remembered was a nun in white coming to his bedside and urging him to pray to St. Anthony. He did, and made a remarkable recovery. Of course, there was no nun in white at the hospital. The Franciscans wore dark habits. Did St. Anthony send Liberace a messenger, or was he just the fortunate recipient of Dr. Thomas Allen's deft handling of the new fangled dialysis machine? Maybe they go hand-in-hand. Dialysis took off after it saved Liberace, and St. Francis Hospital gained a new, life-long benefactor. He raised funds for the hospital, even having a lobby dedicated to him, and made sure that the sisters had tickets whenever he performed in Pittsburgh. Saint Francis Hospital, like Liberace, doesn't exist anymore. It's been replaced by a modern, state of the art Children's Hospital. But hopefully, the good sister in white will stay. The story made his biography Liberace: An American Boy by Darden Asbury Pyron. (Pittsburgh Post Gazette “Saying Goodbye To St. Francis Hospital,” October 20, 2002)
LIEHMAN HOUSE (Allegheny West, Pittsburgh) This building was the home of Moses Liehman, a noted womanizer of his era. When his Beech Avenue house was being remodeled in the early 1990's, a diary of his various affairs with some prominent society ladies was found behind a mantle. This unleashed a flood of paranormal activity in the house, which abated only when the diary was again placed in its' private nook. After all, a gentleman never kisses and tells, even in the afterlife. (The Allegheny Observer “Once Known As 'The Dark Place', Allegheny West Has A Haunting Past,” October 23, 1996)
LITTLE REDSTONE CHURCH CEMETERY (Fayette City, Fayette County) The small red brick Baptist church and cemetery were dedicated in 1857. Shadow figures have been seen flitting around the cemetery, and strange voices have been heard. One even asked investigators "What's your name?" Footsteps caused by unseen beings and cold spots have also been reported. The most unusual phenomena? That would be the fragrance of flowers hanging over the cemetery - in the dead of winter. SW-PA Paranormal
LIVERMORE/LIVERMORE CEMETERY (Westmoreland County) Livermore was established in the 1880's along the banks of the Conemaugh River. Being a river town, it was often flooded. In 1950, it met with its' Biblical flood – the Army Corp of Engineers, as part of the Conemaugh Lake Flood Control project, bought the town, and the dam's reservoir ultimately covered every trace of it. Livermore is now reported to be a town existing underwater, and visitors can sometimes see buildings, chimneys, and a church steeple poking out of the water, along with the howling spirits of those drowned, their bloated faces peering at you, coming after you like a pack of zombies. Rumor has it that the more stubborn Livermorians wouldn't leave their homes, so the Army just flooded them out – and some didn't escape. Many more souls were lost to natural flooding over the years, adding more tormented spirits to the list. There's also a legend of a witch that was burned at the stake early in the town's history. She placed a flood curse on Livermore (pretty successfully, too, it seems). Allegedly, a flood happened on the anniversary of her death, drowning many locals. The town was her throne, and was called “Satan's Seat” by some in her memory. The cemetery is interesting in itself. It was allegedly uprooted and relocated by the Army, and the spirits haunt their new resting place after being disturbed from their eternal slumber. Red eyes can be seen, watching you. Spirits roam the nearby woods. Even better, George Romero was supposed to use the spookyard for his “Night of the Living Dead” film. But those party poopers from the Pittsburgh Ghost Hunters just had to show up and throw cold water over the whole soggy mess. First, they established that the Army Corp of Engineers razed every property in Livermore before flooding it. So there are no buildings to pop into view, and no irate homeowners to be washed under, unless they awaited doomsday sitting in the rubble of their former homes, bailing bucket at their side. (The Corps double checked before it opened the flood gates. It's a demerit on your military record to cause friendly collateral damage.) They didn't address the pre-flood legends, but found no paranormal activity in the area. As for the cemetery, well, it's still in its' original spot. There was a bridge that crossed the railroad tracks connecting Livermore with the cemetery, and it's the bridge that's gone now, not the graveyard. The red eyes are just blinking radio tower warning lights and novena candles. The roaming spirits are hunters and critters. And to cap it off, George Romero filmed his graveyard scenes in Evans City Cemetery, not Livermore's! The facts get in the way of another great tale. A final note of caution – take our word for it and don't go see for yourself. The landscape is treacherous, dotted with open gas wells, and bear have been sighted in the woods. Police patrol this spot, and look unkindly at folk roaming the area, especially at night. If you must go, take a friend, stay on the Rail Trails, and plan for a daylight trip. The history of the town that isn't is passed on in the History of Livermore, A Canal Town by Peggy & Ruthie Oliver. Spirits Of The Mist
LONSINGER HOUSE (Carnegie, Allegheny County) Reportedly, the sounds of organ music can be heard coming from the Old Lonsinger House. There's also a spirit of a “Blue Lady” seen in the house. She's been known to knock on neighbor's doors in the middle of the night, saying something was very wrong in her house. But when the neighbors checked, nothing was amiss and she was nowhere to be found. We can't find a reference for Lonsinger or the house, so until we visit Carnegie... Ghost & Hauntings Research Society
LOWRIE-SHAW HOUSE (Butler, Butler County) The Lowrie-Shaw House was the home of U.S. senator Walter Lowrie, and now is the HQ of the Butler County Historical Society. House visitors report a strong sense of female presence, which some believe are caused by Susan Sullivan and her daughter, Louisa Shaw, both whom lived in the house and have apparently never left it. Sullivan died in 1911 at the age of 87, and Shaw died in 1919 at the age of 70 per a Pittsburgh Post Gazette article by Susan Seibel of 10/30/2002 titled "Retired Teacher Collects Ghostly Tales..." Another legend attached to the house goes that a maid working there was killed by a contractor, but since they couldn't find the body, no trial was ever held. Her body, along with that of her cat, was found a century later under the floorboards of the house. But justice had been already been served. The workman suspected of killing her fell to his death while on a job a few months later. Some think the maid may have given him a little shove.This tale was told by Christine Renee on a History Channel forum.
MAD ANTHONY'S BIER STUBE (Ambridge, Beaver County) There are reports of footsteps on the cellar stairs, doors opening and shutting, chandeliers swaying, the piano playing by itself, and a cold chill passing over the guests and workers. The ghosts are alleged to be brother and sister Harmonites who must find it odd to be haunting a tavern. There's also supposed to the spirit of a little girl in the attic, an illegitimate daughter from the bar's past. She was locked up there until she died. She shows herself now as a flash of light and likes to play poltergeist tricks in the dining room. But the owner doesn't care about his underage guests. He believes that they're good for business, and even says goodnight to them when he locks up for the evening. The Last Of The Ghosts
MAD DAWG'S BAR & GRILL (Tarentum, Allegheny County) The Bakerstown-Culmerville Road pub is said to be home to mists, shadows, voices, and a crying baby. One presence that is suspected is the spirit of Debby, the current owner's departed mom and one-time proprietor of the grill. Other possible presences are Brad, who committed suicide in the parking lot, and Taco, a regular customer. The bar was investigated by Steel Town Paranormal, who found some interesting collaboration of the reports.