All haplotypes that tested positive on L38, also tested positive on L39/S155, L40/S156, L65.1/S159.1; and L272.3. Thus haplogroup I-L38 also can also be defined (or named) using these SNPs. To simplify matters this website only will refer to haplogroup I-L39/S155, L40/S156, L65.1/S159.1, L272.3 as I-L38.
This website collects all available information on haplogroup I-L38. Each of the webpages below reports about a specific investigation; each leading to (direct or indirect) insights on I-L38's history.
About this Website
This page explains the basic concepts of genetic geneology in order to understand the genetic characteristics of haplogroup I-L38 and its subclades.
This page summarizes the migrations that can/could be linked at haplogroup I-L38.
This page lists several plausible scenario's about the origin of haplogroup I-L38 (12,000 years ago).
Figure: Gravettian nomads
This page places the bronze age I-L38 skelettons that are found in the Lichtenstein cave in a larger archeological and cultural perspective. These finds also explain why I-L38 is sometimes nicknamed "the Lichtenstein haplogroup".
Figure: Early metal melters
Based on current I-L38 frequencies and diversity, this page pinpoints the hypothetical location of origin of the Most Recent Common Ancestor (MRCA) of most present-day I-L38s 5,000 years ago).
Figure: Migrating Francs
This page investigates the cultural background of I-L38 family names in relation to their geographical location.
Figure: Yenishe on the run
This page gives an idea of the distribution of I-L38 in previous centuries. Thanks to genealogical paper trails it is possible to pinpoint Oldest Reported Paternal Ancestors (ORPA's) to a location and historical year.
Figure: Palatines flooding London
On this pages maps visualize the present day distribution of haplogroup I-L38; additional tables show remarks per country. The distribution also explains why I-L38 sometimes is described as "the Rhineland haplogroup".
This page refers to links of papers on I-L38 and to other interesting references.
About the Author
Hans De Beule:
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Last update: December 2013 - Hans De Beule