1. Introduction

    All haplotypes that tested positive on L38, also tested positive on L39/S155, L40/S156, L65.1/S159.1; and L272.3. Thus haplogroup I-L38 also can also be defined (or named) using these SNPs. To simplify matters this website only will refer to haplogroup I-L39/S155, L40/S156, L65.1/S159.1, L272.3 as I-L38.
    This website collects all available information on haplogroup I-L38. Each of the webpages below reports about a specific investigation; each leading to (direct or indirect) insights on I-L38's history.

    About this Website

    This page explains the basic concepts of genetic geneology in order to understand the genetic characteristics of haplogroup I-L38 and its subclades.

    This page summarizes the migrations that can/could be linked at haplogroup I-L38.

    This page lists several plausible scenario's about the origin of haplogroup I-L38 (12,000 years ago).
    Figure: Gravettian nomads

    This page places the bronze age I-L38 skelettons that are found in the Lichtenstein cave in a larger archeological and cultural perspective. These finds also explain why I-L38 is sometimes nicknamed "the Lichtenstein haplogroup".
    Figure: Early metal melters

    Based on current I-L38 frequencies and diversity, this page pinpoints the hypothetical location of origin of the Most Recent Common Ancestor (MRCA) of most present-day I-L38s 5,000 years ago). 
    Figure: Migrating Francs

    This page investigates the cultural background of I-L38 family names in relation to their geographical location.
    Figure: Yenishe on the run

    This page gives an idea of the distribution of I-L38 in previous centuries. Thanks to genealogical paper trails it is possible to pinpoint Oldest Reported Paternal Ancestors (ORPA's) to a location and historical year.
    Figure: Palatines flooding London

    On this pages maps visualize the present day distribution of haplogroup I-L38; additional tables show remarks per country. The distribution also explains why I-L38 sometimes is described as "the Rhineland haplogroup".
    Figure: Hollandgänger

            This page refers to links of papers on I-L38 and to other interesting references.

    About the Author

    Hans De Beule:
    • was born in the early seventies;
    • lives in Flanders, Belgium
    • studied social sciences (MSc KULeuven)
    • works as managing director
    • is interested in history, geneology, genography
    • specialism: his haplogroup; I-L38
    • co-administrator of the Haplogroup I-L38 FTDNA project
    • mothertongue: Dutch

    Questions, Suggestions and Thoughts 
    Feedback is welcome in the pane below
    you can contact Hans De Beule at: hans.debeule@hotmail.com

    Last update: December 2013 - Hans De Beule