9. Present I-L38 Distribution

On this pages maps visualize the present day distribution of haplogroup I-L38; additional tables show remarks per country. The distribution also explains why I-L38 sometimes is described as "the Rhineland haplogroup".


The Upper Rhine I-L38 Heartland (September 2008)

From 2008 on it became clear that the Upper Rhine region in Germany has the highest continental I-L38 frequency and diversity; thus is the likely point of origin of the I-L38 MCRA. (De Beule, 2008)



The Upper Rhine I-L38 heartland.



The I-L38 Belt (June 2011)

 The map below shows the distribution of I-L38 as estimated in 2011. 

Estimated I-L38 distribution (De Beule 2011)



The Suspected French Distribution (February 2012)

http://www.goggo.com/terry/HaplogroupI1/y-Haplogroups_I1_and_I2_STR_Branches.pdf

In February 2012 Terry D. Robb presented frequency maps for several I2 haplogroups, among them I-L38 (coded as: I2.0110*). Starting from 67-marker STR databases from various public FTDNA Projects and Ysearch, Robb made frequency maps. These maps show the frequency of occurrence of a particular branch within a given country. The frequency is the number of people in the branch, divided by the number of people that have been tested in the region. This weighting was used to reduce the bias of popular DNA testing regions like England, compared to some less popular testing regions.


Haplogroup I-L38 distribution chart by Terry D. Robb (February 2012)

According Robb the I-L38 frequency comes out highest in France and Switzerland. Robb agrees that the I-L38 (I2.0110*) map erroneously indicates that the frequency is uniform all over France (since that is the binning unit used). (Mail Terry 24th February 2012  I-list y-dna-haplogroup-i@rootsweb.com)



I-L38 Distribution Map (October 2013)

A distribution map however does not correct the over-representation of British samples nor does it correct the under-representation of regions with low sampling rates as France or the Balkan countries. The distribution map of the FTDNA I-L38 project clearly shows the importance of the Rhine. Along the course of the Rhine, lots of I-L38 samples are scattered.



Distribution map of the I-L38 samples from various public databases. Red balloons represent I-L38*; balloons in other colors represent the various SNP branches: blue=L533+, white=L69+ and yellow=F780+.



I-L38 Distribution Percentage Estimates and Remarks (November 2013)

EUROPE

I-L38 project samples (*)

FTDNA # Y-dna samples (*)

%

Corrected % (**)

Remarks on distribution considering all sources

Austria

1

808

0,12

0,40

No I-L38 in East Tyrolean study (N=270) in Slavic nor Romance settlements. 2012, Harald Niederstätter.
The I-L38 member that is born in Austria during WWII has unknown roots.
Besides this sample another Austrian I-L38 sample is known. Both samples family names have a "-ic" suffix, typical for Southern Slavic names (from Serbia, Croatia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Slovenia).

Belgium

2

616

0,32

1,04

0,9% I-L38, results based on the Duchy of Brabant study (N=981). 2010, Van den Cloot. More I-L38 in Flanders than in Wallony (this may be due to less sampling in Wallony). Several locational surnames are proof of a presence in 13th century.

Bulgaria

1

253

0,40

1,26

Only one sample with a Slavic name (with "-ov" suffix) is known.

Czech Rep

0

846

0,00

0,00

SMGF shows 1 Czech I-L38 sample; which is low compared to the known Slovakian samples.

Denmark

2

990

0,20

0,65

Together with the Norwegian samples the Danish samples suggest a trade related (hanseatic) history.

France

8

4240

0,19

0,60

This far I-L38 only appeared in the Alps, Champagne, Alsace, Normandy and North France. One of the samples is of Yenishe origin.

Germany

17

15146

0,11

0,36

Frequency of appearance of I-L38 is highest along the Rhine.

estimate N

2,5

3500

0,07

0,23

Estimates are based on I-L38 FTDNA project map and the I-L38 distribution map.

estimate E

2,5

2500

0,10

0,32

"

estimate S

2,5

2000

0,13

0,40

"

estimate W

9

4000

0,23

0,72

"

Hungary

3

1490

0,20

0,64

Three samples are known; one coming from Szekszárd (Sechshard). The names are Hungarian but also are also present in Vojvodina, a Serbian region bordering Hungary.

Ireland

18

17944

0,10

0,32

I-L38 is especially present in the counties of Cork and Limerick. Famly histories of Irish I-L38s often are entangled with Scotland.  Probably the Palatine migration also left genetic marks.

Italy

1

4110

0,02

0,08

Most Italian I-L38 family names appear near the Swiss border.
The sample in central Italy possibly has Slavic paternal roots.

Lithuania

0

 

0,00

0,00

Apart from the FTDNA project, one I-L38 is known with a Slavic name ('with a "-ich" suffix).

Luxembourg

0

?

0,00

0,00

The only known I-L38 sample has a Germanic sounding name.

Netherlands

5

2108

0,24

0,76

1,95% I-L38 in the Suns of Adam in the Netherlands study (N=410), though lots of samples with the same family name). 2008. Barjesteh van Waalwijk van Doorn.
Most I-L38 samples have a demonstrable Flemish or German paternal roots.

Norway

2

1972

0,10

0,32

The Norvegian samples are located in the south, suggesting a trade related (hanseatic) history.

Portugal

0

955

0,00

0,00

3 of the 4 predicted I-L38's in the FTDNA Iberian project have a background linked to Cabo Verde a former Portuguese colony. Cabo Verde was a popular stop for Flemish ships.

Poland

3

4645

0,06

0,21

Five I-L38 families are known. Four have a German name. Two of the family histories refer to ancient Prussia.

Romania

1

675

0,15

0,47

The Prața family can be linked to Abrud, Transylvania (in German called Siebenbürgen).
Another family (not in the FTDNA project) is tied to Sibiu (or Hermannstadt).
Both samples have Slavic sounding surnames.
The German place names are a result of a migration called the Ostsiedlung.
The region once was part of the Austrian-Hungarian empire,

Slovakia

1

619

0,16

0,52

Apart from the FTDNA I-L38 project several I-L38 samples are known.

Spain

1

4038

0,02

0,08

The presence of I-L38 is neglectable. Seen the high Spanish sample size this is a solid conclusion.

Switzerland

6

2235

0,27

0,86

Most Swiss I-L38 family names 3 have a German or German-Alemannic origin.

Sweden

0

2114

0,00

0,00

Outside the I-L38 project, one Swedish I-L38 family is known (its family name has supposedly German roots) .

United Kingdom (***)

63

45415

0,14

0,44

Highest frequency at the east coast cfr FTDNA I-L38 project distribution map.

The Britains DNA Chromo2 test (including 14,200 SNP's) concluded that of a random dataset of 2000 (British) samples, 14 belonged to I-S155 (aka I-L39). So 0.7% of the Brits belong to I-L38.

Scotland

17

14056

0,12

0,39

Highest frequency at the east coast. A two way relation with Flanders is to be investigated:
The history of Scotland reveals the importance of Flemish migrants into Scotland.
A particular Scottish family (Mesterton) spread to the Low Countries and Scandinavia visualizing how Scots migrated to the continent as scholars, mercenaries and traders.

England

44

29517

0,15

0,48

I-L38 particularly is found in the East of England, the South East and the East Midlands. Probably I-L38 was already present on the British Isles early in history but also a link with the Norman Invasion and with the migration of Flemish weavers is likely.

Wales

3

2484

0,12

0,39

I-L38 has no special relation with Wales.

Northern Ireland

1

1154

0,09

0,28

I-L38 has no special relation with Northern Ireland.

(*) FTDNA Y-DNA 12 marker samples (sep 2013)

(**) Corrected with factor 3,2 (=1,02/0,32) - based on the DNA Belgium study 2010 - with sample size 881 and 9 samples belonging to I-L38

Correction is necessary since not all FTDNA I-L38 samples joined the I-L38 project.

(***) UK data + data England, Wales and N Ireland

Estimating the current I-L38 population:

Based on the table above we can estimate that the current population of I-L38 is over two million:

RegionPresent population in millionsYear of reference
EU5932008
North Am528,72008
Australia22,62011
Sum1144,3million people in EU, NA, Aus
%51,21sex ratio (% males in western countries)
 585,99603million males in EU, NA, Australia
%0,4%Average hg I-L38 in Europe
 2,34million I-L38 males



Discussion (November 2013)

At this moment the haplotyping of Balkan populations is not detailed enough to draw conclusions concerning haplogroup I-L38. The table below aims to summarize what is currently known. 

Estimated percentage of haplogroup I-L38 for Balkan countries:

BALKANS

I-L38 project samples status 28th sep 2013

FTDNA # Y-dna samples status 28th sep 2013 (*)

%

Corrected % (**)

Remarks on distribution considering all sources

Croatia

0

260

<0,9

 

No Croatian I-L38 samples are known; which is extremely low compared to the known Slovenian samples.
The Pericic study (2005) concluded that 0,9% of the Croations belonged to I* (which in this study means: M253- P37- and M223-). Likely a art of this percentage will belong to haplogroup L38+.

Herzegovina

0

?

<2,13

 

The Pericic study (2005) concluded that 2,13% of the Herzegovinians belonged to I* (which in this study means: M253- P37- and M223-). Likely a part of this percentage will belong to haplogroup L38+.

Serbia

0

?

<1,71

 

The Pericic study (2005) concluded that 1,77 % of the Serbs  belonged to I* (which in this study means: M253- P37- and M223-). Likely a part of this percentage will belong to haplogroup L38+.

Slovenia

0

?

<1,3

 

Apart from the FTDNA I-L38 project two I-L38 samples are known. Both have a Slavic sounding name ( one with "-ic" suffix). One family comes from Styria. This region has historical links with Germany; before WWI 80% of the inhabitants of Styria/“Stiermarken” were Austrian Germans.
The Battaglia study (2008) concluded that 1,3% of the Slovenians belonged to I2* (which in this study means: M438+ (akaP215), P37- and M223-). Likely a part of this percentage will belong to haplogroup L38+.

Bosnia/Serbia

0

?

<2,5

 

The Battaglia study (2008) concluded that 2,5% of the Bosnians/Serbs belonged to I2* (which in this study means: M438+ (akaP215), P37- and M223-). Likely a part of this percentage will belong to haplogroup L38+.

Macedonia

0

?

<3,5

 

The Battaglia study (2008) concluded that 3,5% of the Macedonians belonged to I2* (which in this study means: M438+ (aka P215), P37- and M223-). Likely a part of this percentage will belong to haplogroup L38+.


An interesting historical migration is the one that started after the Austro-Hungarian Empire of the Habsburg and took the Banat from the Turks. Subsequently German farmers were encouraged to emigrate to the Banat in the 1700s, the so-called Danube Swabians, who in reality did not only come from Swabia, but also from Hesse, Franconia, Bavaria, Austria and Alsace-Lorraine. In this period, about 100 000 Germans settled in the Banat.



Last update: January 2014 - Hans De Beule