G-L140

This is the home page for men with the L140 mutation or predicted to have it.
So far no one has been located who is just L140+ and negative for all subgroups.
It is unclear how many of those just predicted L140+ belong to one of the known
L140 subgroups.  The major L140 subgroups have some distinctive marker
values, and it can be predicted in a high percentage of cases who belongs to each.

Included here also are four subgroups of L140 whose membership is defined
by a marker value oddity.  When men in these subgroups have whole Y-DNA
sequencing, SNPs will be identified which define their subgroups more 
reliably.   Then they will have separate pages here.  It is unknown presently 
how these marker-defined groups relate to each other.

M201
        P287
              P15
                   L1259
                         L30
                                 CTS5762
                                          P303
                                                  L140
                                                  L694
                                                  M278

The above diagram shows L140's position in the G tree.  It is the youngest of a
series of mutations, each one covering fewer persons as the tree branched.
All L140 men have all the mutations shown above it in the tree.

A separate page exists for each of these mutations and the persons covered by them.
See tabs on left.   The G-P287 and G-M201 pages have significant additional
information.  

L140 has two small sister subgroups, L694 and M278.   Men can belong to one of them, 
but not to the other, because each has some different ancestors.

L140 has four subgroups, as defined by shared SNP mutations.  They are
U1, L497, Z724 and L660/L662.   The subgroups defined by shared
marker value oddities are DYS393=12, DYS643=9, DYS19=17 and DYS490=13.
These men in these latter subgroups also share each other as nearest
matches when 67 markers are compared.

Age of L140

The study by Rootsi et al. in 2012 argued thatthe overall coalescent age estimate 
for P303 is 12,600 years ago.  Since a high perecentage of the samples they used 
for this calculation are likely L140+, this might be the age they are calculating for 
L140 instead.   A second problem is that the calculation is based on mutations in 
markers in the samples.  Using the SNPs in whole genome sequencing is 
considered more reliable.  We do have such samples from the U1 and L497 
subgroups obtained from the Personal Genomes Project, and the common 
ancestor of those two samples seems to have lived about 11,500 years
ago.  Other samples are pending that will give a better view of this.  The method
used for dating using SNPs was described by Wei et al. in 2012.

Not enough samples from the DYS393=12 subgroup are available to suggest
a date.   The DYS643=9 subgroup is also small but an estimated date to the
common male ancestor for the samples is 2500 to 3000 yrs ago.  The DYS19=17
subgroup dates to perhaps 1500 yrs ago, but some of the more geographically
dispersed members do not have adequate samples for time comparisons.
Finally, the DYS490=13 subgroup seems to have a common ancestor 1000 to
1500 yrs ago.  While this is the time to the common ancestor, there may
have been earlier ancestors who had the same mutations.

Geographic Distribution of L140

There are presently no L140 men negative for all subgroups.  The L140
subgroup as a whole is widely dispersed to Europe, north Africa and
most parts of Asia in the Old World.  Specific info is listed with L140
subgroups.

The DYS393-12 subgroup seems heavily concentrated in Cypriot men with
Greek surnames.  The DYS643=9 subgroup, in contrast, lists men from 
Germany or German border areas of France.  The DYS19=17 subgroup is
quite varied.  Some of the men seem Ashkenazi Jews from n.e. Europe.
Others mention Iraq and England.  The DYS490=13 subgroup reports
ancestors living in Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates.

Origin of L140

Because L140 seems to date to over 10,000 years ago when men were 
hunter gatherers and did not do record keeping, the early years will likely
remain undefined as to location.  For the most part, the story of L140
is the story of its defined subgroups which seem to have developed partly in
historical times.  

The four marker oddity-defined subgroups have some distinctive
geographical concentrations, but it is not understood yet how any of them
came to be.

L140-Related Maps

Rootsi et al. in 2012 produced a map of haplogroup G samples which they
labeled P303.  While technically this does contain all P303 samples, virtually
all in the locations used are more precisely L140.  And so this map is thus
recommended for L140 men.  The one exception involves the unknown
type of P303 they found in Palestinians which may lie outside the L140 group.
It is very tiny.  Magnification to 200% is suggested.  While the map rightly
shows a heavy P303 concentration at the eastern end of the Black Sea in the
western Caucasus (corresponding to the Adyghe population), there are
misperceptions created by the use of the software which creates radiations
from a site of concentration.  There is unlikely any shown significant P303 men
north of the Black Sea site.  Likewise a P303 percentage of 18% among Palestinians
causes a radiation from Israel and Jordan.  Certainly there would be few 
men of any sort in much of the Sinai Desert to the west.   In addition, their contour
maps of Italy do not seem to correspond to the patchwork percentages of 
P303 men in the Italian population provided by various sources.  There seems
an unusual concentration of P303 in the samll island of Ibiza off Spain, but it is 
missing in the map.  In addition, Austrian researchers seem to have found unusual
percentages of P303 in western Austria, and that is not reflected in the samples
that these authors used.

On the Project Roster, subgroups have their own maps.  The L140 subgroup is listed 
about half way from the top at:
Look at top left of map and choose the L140 subgroup.  Just below this are the maps for the 
subgroups of L140.

Source Information

Rootsi and others in 2012 included a study of P303 as one of the features. 
It is likely nearly all these men actually have L140 which was not tested.

The Wei methodology for dating SNP mutation differences from 2012:

Alshamali and others in 2009 included seemingly L140 samples in data:

Rodriquez and others in 2009 included seeming Ibiza island L140 men in data:

Ayadi and others in 2006 included a seeming L140 sample in their data:

Adams and others in 2008 provided seeming L140 samples from Iberia:

"The Genetic Legacy of Religious Diversity and Intolerance: Paternal Lineages

of Christians, Jews and Muslims in the Iberian Peninsula [G samples are listed in suppementary data]


Special Testing of men on this page in earlier years

                                                                                                                                     Marker designations in blue with values underneath 

Kit No.SurnameCategoryGrp.SNPDYS
463
DYS
643
DYS
461
DYS
462
DYS
635
DYS
726
DYS
434
DYS
435
DYS
441
DYS
445
DYS
452
DYS
485
DYS
495
DYS
714
DYS
716
DYS
717
GATA
A10
GGAAT
1B07
DYF
397
DYF
399X
DYF
371X
DYF
385
DYF
401
DYF
411
DYS
725
DYS
494
DYS
505
DYS
522
DYS
533
DYS
549
DYS
556
DYS
575
DYS
589
DYS
636
DYS
638
DYS
710
DYF
408
DYS
464X
N67835
Ruiz
G2a3b1a*
 
L140
221221129111427172027121113 13 14 1519.1t 23c 24c10c 13c 13c 14t10 1011 1331 31 31 32912101013111013111032.2188 188 9 
13
13g 13g 13g 14g



 





 



.

 










73589
Vick
G2a3b1a*
 
L140
9
120853
Fritsch
G2a3b1a*
 
L140
9
47375
Banks 
G2a3b1a*
 
L140
22912122012911141026161520272212119111110121210121112
 

Seeming L140 samples, type unknown                                                                         

                                                                                                                                     Marker designations in blue with corresponding marker values below 

Kit No.SurnameAncestral.origin
 
Haplo
Code
 
YSearch
Link
39339019
(394)
391385
a
385
b
426388439389
i
392389
ii
458459
a
459
b
455454447437448449464
a
464
b
464
c
464
d
464
e
464
f
460GATA
H4
YCA
IIa
YCA
IIb
456607576570CDY
a
CDY
b
442438531578395
S1a
395
S1b
590537641472406
S1
511425413
a
413
b
557594436490534450444481520446617568487572640492565441461463445452YGATA
A10
YGATA
H4.1
462GGAAT
1807
635
 
YHRD sample
AtlanticoColombia
X
 
142215101315111213113118162112151022
 
YHRD sample
HispanicAmerican
X
 
142215101315111213113120162112161023
 
YHRD sample
NannoColumbia
(Mestizo)
 
 
1422151012161112111211291716211216 1021
 
ResearchStudy5*
s. Tunisia
 
 
14221510141611111211281610
 
ResearchStudy
SaudiArabia
   X
 
1423151014141111121128
 
Research Study2*
N.Portugal
GENL
 
14221510121612121211291611 10121112
 
Research Study2*
S.Portugal
GENL
 
14221510121612121211301611 10121112
 
ResearchStudy4
7 men
Ibiza e.Spain
X
 
14221510141411121211291610
 
ResearchStudy4
2 men
Ibiza e.Spain
X
 
14221510141511121211291610
 
YHRDsample*
RavennaItaly
 
1422151014151111121129171621151020
 
YHRDsample*
WroclawPoland
 
1422151014151111121129161622151020
 
YHRDsample*
centralPortugal
X
 
14221510161611121129
 
YHRDsample*
Netherlands
X
 
14221410141411131130
 
YHRDsample*
FrieslandNether
X
 
14221410141411131130
 
YHRDsample*
BresciaItaly
X
 
14221410141411131130
 
YHRDsample*
VeronaItaly
X
 
142214101414111113113011
 
YHRDsample*
HalleGermany
X
 
13211410141411121129
 
YHRDsample*
Georgia
X
 
13211510141411121129
 
YHRDsample*
BernSwitzerland
X
 
13211510141411121129
 
YHRDsample*
BerlinGermany
X
 
13211510141411121129
 
YHRDsample*
ChengduChina
(Han)
X
 
142215101415111212113110
 
2YHRDsamples*
ReggiodiCalabriaItaly
X
 
1422151014141111111128 1610
 
YHRDsample*
HamburgGermany
X
 
1422151015151112121128 
 
YHRDsample*
RioGrandedoSulBrazil
X
 
142215101515111212112816 152112171021
 
YHRDsamples*
RioGrandedoSulBrazil
X
 
142215101515111212112816 152212161021
 
YHRDsample*
Ravenna Italy
    X
 
142317101416111212122817152112151021
 
YHRDsample*
Cosenza Italy
    X
 
14231710141611121212281410
 
YHRDsample*
El Minia Egypt
X
 
142215111414111012113017152012141021
 
YHRDsample*
Leipzig Germany
X
 
14221511141411121130
 
YHRDsample*
Valencia Spain
X
 
14221511141411111211301610
 
YHRDsample*
Sri Lanka
X
 
142214101415111213112915
 
YHRDsample*
StuttgartGermany
X
 
142214101415111212112910
 
YHRDsample*
Finland
X
 
142214101415111212112910
 
YHRDsample*
Nix Gxia China
(Han)
X
 
142214101415111112112910
 
YHRDsample*
 RavennaItaly
X 
14221510141411121129171621151020
 
YHRDsample*
 RavennaItaly
X 
14221510141411121129161623151021
 
YHRDsample*
CologneGermany
X 
14221510141411121129161621161020
 
YHRDsample*
CologneGermany
X 
14221510141411121129171621171021
 
YHRDsample*
 Agc'lientesMex
  X
 
14221510131511121129
 
YHRDsample*
 Georgia
  X
 
14221510131511121129
 
YHRDsample*
  HispanicUSA
  X
 
14221510131511121129
 
YHRDsample*
  LeipzigGerm
  X
 
14221510131511121129
 
YHRDsample*
  Byd'uszczPol
  X
 
14221510131511121129
 
YHRDsample*
 ChengduChina
(Han)
  X
 
14221510131511121129
 
YHRDsample*
 ReggiodCItal
  X
 
14221510131511121130
 
YHRDsample*
s.Poland 
  X
 
14221510131511121130
 
YHRDsample*
Armenia 
  X
 
14221510131511121130
 
YHRDsample*
Sicily 
  X
 
14221510131511121130
 
YHRDsample*
  Tyrol Austria
  X
 
14211510141511121130
 
YHRDsample*
 RavennaItaly
1422151014141112121129161521161023
 
YHRDsample*
Tunisia
X
 
14221510141511151211291610
 
YHRDsample*
Reunion(CreoleBlanc
X
 
14221510141511131130
 
YHRDsample*
ValMarecchiaItaly
X
 
14221510141511131130
 
YHRDsample*
Tripoli Libya
X
 
14221510141511131130
 
YHRDsample*
Costa Rica
X
 
14221510141511131130
 
YHRDsample*
Malaysia (Indian)
X
 
142215101415111313113110
 
YHRDsample"
CologneGermany
X
 
1422141013151112112916152011141021
2YHRD
samples*
ChemnitzGerm
X
1422159141411131130
 
YHRDsample
Cologne,Germany
X 
 
1522151014141112121129161621101520
 
YHRDsample
Cologne,Germany
X 
 
1522151014141112121129171621121520
 
YHRD sample*
Digora,
N. Ossetia 
GENL
14221510141411121129
 
2YHRD samples*
Abazinians,
w. Georgia
GENL
>
14221510151711121129
 
YHRD sample*
Georgia
GENL
14221510141411121129

    The YHRD database is a public worldwide database.  Research study is Alshamali (see above). 

              Research study 2 is Adams.   Research study 4 is Rodriguez.  Study 5 is Ayadi (see above)  

Special Testing

The following L140+ men not fully tested for subgroups have the following results
for newer, poorly defined SNP mutations:  
                                                     items in red are L140 subgrps   + means positive, - means negative               

L78-   Ruiz
L497- Ben Aknin, Dimovski, Ruiz
L640- Hachikian, Ruiz
L660-  Ben Aknin
L662- Ben Aknin
L668+ Babigan
L697.1+ Hachikian
L698+    Hachikian
U1-  E8688, E14628, Babigan, Balozian, Bellanca, Bellini, Ben Aknin, de Oliveira, 
         Demontis, Francis, Hachikian, Herranz, Ivas, Jarman, Krause, Ruiz, Rusnack
Z724-  Ben Aknin
Z725- Dimovski
L353.1- Dimovski


The following DYS643=9  men  have the following results
for newer, poorly defined SNP mutations:  
                                                     items in red are P303 subgrps   + means positive, - means negative               
L72- Fritsch
L78- Fritsch
L89- Fritsch
L90- Fritsch
L116+ Fritsch
L139- Fritsch
L142+ Fritsch
L154+ Fritsch
L156+ Fritsch
L190+ Fritsch
L204+ Fritsch
L293- Fritsch
L297- Fritsch
L319+ Fritsch
L353+ Fritsch
L373-  Fritsch
L377-  Fritsch
L497- Banks
L382+ Fritsch
L402+ Fritsch
L521+ Fritsch
L605+ Fritsch
L660-  
L662- Rudser
L668- Banks, Vick
L698- Koch
Page99- Fritsch
U1- Fritsch
Z724- Banks

The following DYS393=12  men  have the following results
for newer, poorly defined SNP mutations:  
                                                     items in red are P303 subgrps   + means positive, - means negative               

L497- 
L660-  
L662- 
U1-  Stivadoros
Z724-  

The following DYS19=17  men  have the following results
for newer, poorly defined SNP mutations:  
                                                     items in red are P303 subgrps   + means positive, - means negative               

L497- 
L660-  
L662- 
U1-  Bloomfield
Z724-  Bloomfield
Z1903- Bloomfield

The following DYS490=13  men  have the following results
for newer, poorly defined SNP mutations:  
                                                     items in red are P303 subgrps   + means positive, - means negative               

L497- 
L660-  
L662- 
U1-  Bani Sulaim 1
Z724-  

         more info about these SNPs can be found at:
                   type L1325, for example, in the Landmark box.  After searching, look
                               for the small L1325 in the colored area and click on it.
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