G-L166

This is the home page for men with the L166 mutation and negative for its subgroup OR 
are predicted to have L166.

So far, all L166 men have the L167 mutation as well.  If a person is found to have one
and not the other that would be the basis of a new subgroup.

As with many of the subgroups within the broader PF3146 group, a good number of
these L91 men have double values for DYS19.   Their DYS389II component is often
over 29 which is not typical of other G men.

M201
      P287
            P15
                 L1259 
                        PF3146
                                PF3177
                                       L91
                                              PF3239
                                                      L166, L167

The diagram just above shows where L166 is located in the G Tree.  
It is a branch under L91 and younger than L91.  There is separate page here that
supplies info on all L91 men whether part of L166 or not.  See the G-L91 tab.
In turn, L91 is a branch of PF3177 and younger than PF3177.   There is a page 
titled G-PF3177.  PF3177 is younger branch of PF3146 which is the mother group 
of PF3177.  Much  more information is known of this overall PF3146 group and 
explained at G-PF3146  on the left.  PF3146 is more recent than L1259 & P15 which are the 
mother groups of P3146.  They cover more men. There is a separate page for P15, 
shown in the left tabs here as G-P15. But the page for the even older SNP, G-P287, 
covers yet more persons, and its page has extensive information about that broad 
group.  And finally these all belong also to P287's mother group, G-M201, which 
has even more information for that M201 mutation which is found in every single 
G man.

L166 has a single confirmed subgroup so far, FGC5672.

In 2102 Keller et al. published a genetic analysis of Oetzi, the Iceman mummy,
which showed that he had the L91 mutation.  But they also made available the
full sequencing information.  And this shows he also also the L166 mutation 
which puts him in that subgroup of L91.  This mummy was found in 1999.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%96tzi  He had no acceptable reading for L167.

Age of L166

We know that the Iceman mummy, dubbed Oetzi, has the L166 mutation.  So that
means the L166 subgroup is a minimum of 5300 years old.   Nothing can date a
mutation better than finding it an ancient skeleton which can be dated with the
radiocarbon process.   

Francalacci et al. in a 2013 study of Sardinia provided information that suggests
the common ancestor of the L166 men living in Sardinia lived about 12,000 yrs
ago using the more widely accepted Y-DNA mutation rate.

Distribution Geographically of L166.

The Iceman mummy was found in a portion of the Alps in the Trentino Province
of n. e. Italy.   The few confirmed L166 samples in the G Project are from Italy,
France and Germany.

See the samples from Rootsi et al. in the page for the L91 mother group.
These almost all have 13,14 for marker DYS385.  In the G Project 13,14
is confined almost exclusively to the L166 subgroup.  So this may indicate
that the Corsican samples are also L166+.  13,14 is also characteristic of the
Sardinian samples with double DYS19 values.

And, in fact, in 2013, Francalacci et al. showed that about a third of the L91 men
in Sardinia were L166+ men.  These represent about a ninth of the G men
on the island, the highest recorded percentage anywhere for L166 men.  
In total, L166 men make up about 1% of the men in Sardinia.

It is presently unclear if all European L166 might belong to the FGC5672 subgroup
under L166 which initially seems to be the case.

Origin of L166

Little can be said of the origins of L166.  It is known to be present in the
prehistoric period, and very little can be said of the migrations at that
time before historical writing came into use.

Maps Related to L166

A map of  L166 project men who do not belong to a subgroup or whose subgroup info 
is missing:
Look at top left of map and choose the selection about 40 items from the top that says
L166.

Source Information

Keller and others in 2012 were the only authors ever to report on a L166+
person, but the existence of the L166 mutation was not then widely known.

Francalacci and others in 2013 showed the unusual frequency of L166 in Sardinia
supplement has info.  Because they did not test L166 & L167, equivalents were used for
our analysis.

Rootsi and others provided marker samples in presumed L166 Corsican men
in 2012.  It is unknown if all might belong to L166's subgroup.

Rootsi et al.  provided these L91 samples in 2012:  (marker names abbreviated, some markers, some samples omitted)
           These are not tested for some of the L91 subgroups known to us.
Sample                393     390   19   391     385     388    389    392  458   635   
Corsica                 14       22    15    11    13-14    12    13-30   11    17    21   (2 samples)
Corsica                 14       22    16    11    13-14    12    13-31   11    17    20
Corsica                 14       22    15    11    13-14    12    14-30   11    18    22
Corsica                 13       22    15    11    13-14    12    14-30   11    19    22
Corsica                 14       22    15    11    12-14    12    14-30   11    17    21
Corsica                 14       22    15    10    13-14    12    14-30   11    18    21 (2 samples)
Corsica                 14       22    15    10    13-14    12    14-30   11    17    21
Corsica                 13       22    15    10    13-14    12    14-30   11    18    21
Corsica                 14       22    15    11    13-14    12    13-29   11    18    21
Corsica                 14       22   15,16 11   13-14    12     14-31   11    17   20
Corsica                 14       22   15,16 11   13-14    12     13-30   11    17   21
Corsica                 14       22    15    11    13-14    12    14-30    11   18   21
Corsica                 14       22    15    11    13-14    12    14-30    11   17   21
Corsica                 14       22   14,15 11    13-14    12    14-31   11   18   21
Corsica                 14       22   15,16 11    13-14    12    13-30   11   17   21
                               other Corsican samples omitted.... the persistence of the 13,14  DYS385 value is striking
                               and among the men in the G Project this finding is characteristic only of he L166+ subgrp


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