G-PF3146

This is the home page for men with the PF3146 mutation who are negative for its subgroup.
Also listed are men predicted PF3146 but lacking testing about its subgroup.  Additional
testing to clarify one's status as to PF3177 is always helpful.

Also included here are PF3146 men in two subgroups based on shared marker value oddities.
Their status as to having the PF3177 mutation or not is not yet established.  They will be
moved if they have PF3177.

M201
        P287
               P15
                      L1259
                            PF3146

In the G tree PF3146 is more recent than L1259 which is the mother group of PF3146.  P15 covers even more 
men.  There are separate pages for these, shown in the left tabs here as G-P15/G-L1259. But the page for 
the even older SNP, G-P287, covers yet more persons, and its page has extensive information about
that broad group.  And finally at the top PF3146 belongs also to P287's mother group, G-M201, which has
even more information for this mutation which is found in every single G man.

The three subgroups of PF3146 are PF3177 together with two subgroups defined for now
as (a) DYS385a=9 and (b) DYS391=9 & YCA=19,20.  Whole genome sequencing can provide 
identification of one or more SNP mutations (which are permanent) to replace subgroups
defined by markers which are not permanent.  In addition, we are still trying to determine
if the DYS385a=9 subgroup more properly belongs under the PF3177 subgroup instead.

PF3146 is one of the mutations identified in a group of Sardinians and added to the 
Geno 2.0 test in 2012.  By 2013, it was confirmed this mutation covered the same persons
as L223 which had become unreliable.   So L223 was dropped from the Y trees, and PF3146
supplanted it.

There are several marker features seen in PF3146 men of all types and subgroups. 
(1) They are more likely than the average G man to have a value higher than 29 for
the second component of DYS389.  And a double value for the DYS19 marker is not
only common in PF3146 men but also extremely rare outside the PF3146 group.
When one of the double 19 values mutations mutates to the same value as the other, the lab
can no longer identify the double value.

Age of PF3146

PF3146 is very old.  Comparing differences among 67-marker samples of PF3146 men,
considerable differences are observed.  With so many differences, the ability to determine
time to common ancestor deteriorates badly.  And with as many differences as seen, it is
common for persons from other haplogroups to have a similar number of marker differences.
We do know that a skeleton known to be within PF3146 has been dated to 5000 yrs old, 
but it would not be surprising if PF3146 is older than 10,000 yrs.

The age of the tiny DYS385a=9 subgroup is likely within the last 500 yrs.    In contrast,
the DYS391=9 subgroup is likely more than 4,000 yrs old.  These are the estimated 
years to when the common ancestor of our samples lived.  It is possible that the subgroup
existed even longer, but we do not have samples from even earlier branches of the 
subgroup.

Whole genome sequencing will allow much better time estimates.

Distribution Geographically of PF3146.

At this writing so few men have been tested for PF3146 that it is unknown what
geographical distribution such men may have.   The distribution of the the subgroups
under PF3177 are covered on their pages.  But overall PF3146 is seen in Europe,
northern Africa and eastward from these two locations to Armenia and Pakistan.
So far no samples have surfaced from China or southern Asia.

It is suspected that general PF3146 has an unusual prevalence in Sardinia and Corsica
off the western coast of Italy.   It is known from a study by Keller et al. that 
this is true of PF3146's subgroup L91.  But some Sardinian marker data supplied by 
Contu (2008) and Ghiani (2009) and others showed an unusual prevalence of
double DYS19 values seen perhaps in half of PF3146 men and only in them.  Keller 
and others (2012) examined 7,797 European samples and found 12% prevalence 
of the L91 subgroup in southern Corsica and 9% in northern Sardinia.  They did not 
check for the overall percentage of G or how many samples they examined on the
two islands.   An accompanying map shows three red fots in Sardinia and 7 in Corsica
which are probably testing sites.   Some of the these are expected to be non-L91
Z1426 men but not confirmed.

One of the areas Keller sampled was in the central highlands area.  This is considered
according to Zei and others in 2003 the ancient asylum area of the original inhabitants
and was avoided in the historical period by colonizers, such as the Phoenicians and Romans.
In both Zei and Contu unspecified types of G samples are listed in the highlands, with
Zei finding a slightly higher percentage of G in the highlands than elsewhere.  Keller
did not validate this higher percentage in the highlands but provides no information at
all as to how many samples were taken in Sardinian locales.  And Contu found the
southern town sampled had higher G percentages (18%) as opposed to 16% in the
north and 13% in the highlands.  Whatever the actual percentages, the marker
values seems quite varied but not dramatically different from area to area.  Contu
shows double DYS19 samples in the north and south, and higher than average
DYS389II values are seen in all areas.  Both these findings are consistent with
PF1426 men. 

Rootsi et al. in 2012 seem to have re-used perhaps the Keller samples.  They
indicate that a clear majority of the G samples they tested were L91+ and 60% of
the others just P15+ had double DYS19.  This makes the majority of G samples from
Corsica fall within PF3146, an astounding percentage.

The DYS385a=9 subgroup has a dramatic mutation of its marker that only men
with the same ancestor have any likelihood to have.  The present samples show only
men with seeming British Isles ancestry.

The DYS391=9 and YCA=19,20 subgroup is heavily concentrated in men from 
Turkey or Armenia. 

Origin of PF3146

Currently the origin of PF3146 and all its subgroups is completed unknown.  There
is some likelihood of a spread from the Near East.  We know that part of one of the 
subgroups have spread to northern Italy by 5000 years ago. Whole genome 
sequencing will allow at least a better estimate of the time when persons within 
PF3146 last shared common ancestors.

Maps Related to PF3146

A map of PF3146 project men who do not belong to a subgroup or whose subgroup info 
is missing:
Look at top left of map and choose PF3146.
Then you can look at the information below these for the maps for the PF3146 subgroups
mentioned above.

Source Information

Because PF3146 was only recently identified, no authors have done any studies of 
just PF3146.

Contu in 2008 and Zei in 2003 and others described the haplogroups of Sardinia and time 
relationships to the population.  Contu provided marker samples.

Keller and others in 2012 described the L91 percentage in the Corsican and Sardinian population
in the European context

http://www.nature.com/ncomms/journal/v3/n2/full/ncomms1701.html

Ghiani also provided some poorly described Sardinian samples, one of which has a double 
DYS19 value.

Vanek and others in 2009 reported on P289 skeletal remains in Germany from 7th century
and one had a double DYS19 value:

Vanek and others in 2008 included a Portuguese sample with double DYS19:

Rootsi and others provided L91 samples from Corsica in 2012.

 Samples with duplicated DYS19 --- General PF3146 or subgroups?

                                                               Marker designations in blue with corresponding marker values below 

Kit No.SurnameAncestral.origin
 
Haplo
Code
 
YSearch
Link
39339019
(394)
391385
a
385
b
426388439389
i
392389
ii
458459
a
459
b
455454447437448449464
a
464
b
464
c
464
d
464
e
464
f
460GATA
H4
YCA
IIa
YCA
IIb
456607576570CDY
a
CDY
b
442438531578395
S1a
395
S1b
590537641472406
S1
511425413
a
413
b
557594436490534450444481520446617568487572640492565441461463445452YGATA
A10
YGATA
H4.1
462GGAAT
1807
635
 
ResearchStudy2*
s.e.Sardinia
GENL
 
142215+161113141331
 
ResearchStudy2*
n.Sardinia
GENL
 
142215+161013141331
 
ResearchStudy2*
n.Sardinia
GENL
 
142215+161113141330
 
ResearchStudy3*
Sardinia Italy
   PART
 
142215+1611131411131130191621131021
 
YHRDsample*
PragueCzechR
X
 
142315+1710131511111311311610
                       Research study 2 is Contu (see above).  Research study 3 is Ghiani (see above).  YHRD is a public worldwide database.
 

A subgroup of DYS19=15+17 with DYS393=13   

                                                                                                                                     Marker designations in blue

Kit No.SurnameAncestral.origin
 
Haplo
Code
 
YSearch
Link
39339019
(394)
391385
a
385
b
426388439389
i
392389
ii
458459
a
459
b
455454447437448449464
a
464
b
464
c
464
d
464
e
464
f
460GATA
H4
YCA
IIa
YCA
IIb
456607576570CDY
a
CDY
b
442438531578395
S1a
395
S1b
590537641472406
S1
511425413
a
413
b
557594436490534450444481520446617568487572640492565441461463445452YGATA
A10
YGATA
H4.1
462GGAAT
1807
635
 
YHRDsample
OberoestereichAustr
X
 
132215+1710141611
12141130





16


















11







































 
YHRDsample
OberoestereichAustr
X
 
132216+1710141611
12141130





16


















10







































            YHRD is a public worldwide database

A DYS19=14+15 subgroup  

                                                                                                                                     Marker designations in blue

Kit No.SurnameAncestral.origin
 
Haplo
Code
 
YSearch
Link
39339019
(394)
391385
a
385
b
426388439389
i
392389
ii
458459
a
459
b
455454447437448449464
a
464
b
464
c
464
d
464
e
464
f
460GATA
H4
YCA
IIa
YCA
IIb
456607576570CDY
a
CDY
b
442438531578395
S1a
395
S1b
590537641472406
S1
511425413
a
413
b
557594436490534450444481520446617568487572640492565441461463445452YGATA
A10
YGATA
H4.1
462GGAAT
1807
635
 
ResearchStudy2
n.Sardinia
GENL
 
142214+15111214


14
30


































































        Research study 2 is Contu (see above)

A DYS19=15+16 Hispanic subgroup 

                                                                                                                                     Marker designations in blue


Kit No.
Surname
Ancestral.origin
 
Haplo
Code
 
YSearch
Link
39339019
(394)
391385
a
385
b
426388439389
i
392389
ii
458459
a
459
b
455454447437448449464
a
464
b
464
c
464
d
464
e
464
f
460GATA
H4
YCA
IIa
YCA
IIb
456607576570CDY
a
CDY
b
442438531578395
S1a
395
S1b
590537641472406
S1
511425413
a
413
b
557594436490534450444481520446617568487572640492565441461463445452YGATA
A10
YGATA
H4.1
462GGAAT
1807
635
 
YHRDsample
HispanicAmerican
X
 
142115+1610131411
1114113018 




1622







12

16





10






































23
 
YHRDsample
HispanicAmerican
X
 
142115+1610131411
11151131 

































































      YHRD is a public worldwide database

A DYS19=15+16 subgroup                                                                         

                                                                                                                                     Marker designations in blue


Kit No.SurnameAncestral.origin
 
Haplo
Code
 
YSearch
Link
39339019
(394)
391385
a
385
b
426388439389
i
392389
ii
458459
a
459
b
455454447437448449464
a
464
b
464
c
464
d
464
e
464
f
460GATA
H4
YCA
IIa
YCA
IIb
456607576570CDY
a
CDY
b
442438531578395
S1a
395
S1b
590537641472406
S1
511425413
a
413
b
557594436490534450444481520446617568487572640492565441461463445452YGATA
A10
YGATA
H4.1
462GGAAT
1807
635
 
Research study
S.Portugal
GENL
 
152215+16101317
1211141130 




16







10









10














14














11




12

 
YHRDsample
Colombia(mestizo)
X
 
142215+1610131711
1114113019 




1622







12

14





10






































22
 
Research
study 4
Yemen(Jewish)
PART
 
142215+161115171112151211291989111122
2129
















10














11























      Research study is Adams (see above).  Research study 4 in Hammer (see above).  YHRD is a public worldwide database.
 
Another DYS19=15+16 subgroup [with an ancient skeleton]                                                                          

                                                                                                                                     Marker designations in blue


Kit No.SurnameAncestral.origin
 
Haplo
Code
 
YSearch
Link
39339019
(394)
391385
a
385
b
426388439389
i
392389
ii
458459
a
459
b
455454447437448449464
a
464
b
464
c
464
d
464
e
464
f
460GATA
H4
YCA
IIa
YCA
IIb
456607576570CDY
a
CDY
b
442438531578395
S1a
395
S1b
590537641472406
S1
511425413
a
413
b
557594436490534450444481520446617568487572640492565441461463445452YGATA
A10
YGATA
H4.1
462GGAAT
1807
635
 
ResearchStudy3
e.BavariaGermany
X
 
14
14+15


111311121129
99

2316


















10







































          Research study 3 in Vanek (see above)

Another DYS19=15+16 subgroup                                                                          

 

                                                                                                                                     Marker designations in blue


Kit No.SurnameAncestral.origin
 
Haplo
Code
 
YSearch
Link
39339019
(394)
391385
a
385
b
426388439389
i
392389
ii
458459
a
459
b
455454447437448449464
a
464
b
464
c
464
d
464
e
464
f
460GATA
H4
YCA
IIa
YCA
IIb
456607576570CDY
a
CDY
b
442438531578395
S1a
395
S1b
590537641472406
S1
511425413
a
413
b
557594436490534450444481520446617568487572640492565441461463445452YGATA
A10
YGATA
H4.1
462GGAAT
1807
635
 
YHRDsample
Orel Russia
X
 
142215+1610131511
1214113218 




1720







12

16





10






































22
 
YHRDsample
CologneGermany
X
 
142215+1710131511
1214113219 




1621







12

16





10






































21
        YHRD is a public worldwide database


Another DYS19=15+16 subgroup                                                                          

                                                                                                                                     Marker designations in blue


Kit No.SurnameAncestral.origin
 
Haplo
Code
 
YSearch
Link
39339019
(394)
391385
a
385
b
426388439389
i
392389
ii
458459
a
459
b
455454447437448449464
a
464
b
464
c
464
d
464
e
464
f
460GATA
H4
YCA
IIa
YCA
IIb
456607576570CDY
a
CDY
b
442438531578395
S1a
395
S1b
590537641472406
S1
511425413
a
413
b
557594436490534450444481520446617568487572640492565441461463445452YGATA
A10
YGATA
H4.1
462GGAAT
1807
635
 
YHRDsample
BerlinGermany
X
 
132215+1610141411
11131130

























10







































 
3YHRDsamples
Turkey
X
 
132215+1610141411

131130


































































              YHRD is a public worldwide database

Another DYS19=14+15 subgroup  

                                                                                                                                     Marker designations in blue with corresponding values underneath


Kit No.SurnameAncestral.origin
 
Haplo
Code
 
YSearch
Link
39339019
(394)
391385
a
385
b
426388439389
i
392389
ii
458459
a
459
b
455454447437448449464
a
464
b
464
c
464
d
464
e
464
f
460GATA
H4
YCA
IIa
YCA
IIb
456607576570CDY
a
CDY
b
442438531578395
S1a
395
S1b
590537641472406
S1
511425413
a
413
b
557594436490534450444481520446617568487572640492565441461463445452YGATA
A10
YGATA
H4.1
462GGAAT
1807
635
 
ResearchStudy4
Israel(Jewish)
PART
 
132114+1511141511121512112918910111124
2327









18





10














11























              Research study 4 is Hammer (see above)

 Special Testing

The following PF3146  men negative/not tested for all subgroups of PF3146 have the following results
for newer, poorly defined SNP mutations:   
                                              Red means neg for PF3146's subgrp     + means positive, - means negative

L293- Proctor
PF3177-  Khan, Penman

The following DYS391=9 & YCA=19,20 men have the following results
for newer, poorly defined SNP mutations:   
                                              Red means neg for PF3146's subgrp    + means positive, - means negative

PF3177- Mikaelian

         more info about these SNPs can be found at:
                   type L1325, for example, in the Landmark box.  After searching, look
                               for the small L1325 in the colored area and click on it.
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