G-U1

This page is the home page for men proven to have the U1 mutation and are negative
for U1 SNP-defined subgroups.  In reality, only one man as of this writing meets the criteria for
this.  We have included here a number of men untested for U1 subgroups who likely belong to one
of them.  Additional testing to clarify subgroup status is always helpful.

We have included here also a presumed U1 subgroup found among the Hazaras of Afghanistan
who share marker value DYS393=15.  They could belong to one of the U1 SNP-defined 
subgroups, but they are not available for testing for these.  When whole sequencing identifies 
a SNP peculiar to these men, this will replace the less reliable DYS393=15 classification now used.

M201
        P287
              P15
                   L1259
                         L30
                                L141
                                         P303
                                                 L140
                                                         U1
                                                         L497
                                                         CTS342

The above diagram shows U1's position in the G tree.  It is the youngest of a
series of mutations, each one covering fewer persons as the tree branched.
All  U1 men have all the mutations shown above it in the tree.

A separate page exists for each of these mutations and the persons covered by them.
See tabs on left.   The G-L140, G-P287 and G-M201 pages have significant additional
information.  

U1 has two sister subgroups, L497 & Z724 & CTS342.   Men can belong to one 
of them, but not to the others, because each has some different ancestors.

U1 also have two major subgroups which seem to subsume a very high percentage of
U1 men.  But the identification of one only in 2012 means there are not yet large 
numbers of results available for such a conclusion  They are L13 and L1266. 

The great majority of men throughout all components of U1 seem to share two very
characteristic marker values.  The first is as DYS385a value of less than 14.  And they
also have YCA values of 19/20.  Each of these markers are subjects to rare additional
mutations so a few men with have different values.  YCA has not been tested very
often in research studies.

Age of U1

Using samples from the Personal Genomes Project in 2013 we concluded that the
converge time of the sister groups U1 and L497 from L140 was about 12,000 yrs
ago.  This was done using the methodology described by Wei and others in 2012.
Additional whole genome sequencing availability will allow more detailed time
estimates involving U1 subgroups.

The lack of detailed samples from the DYS393=15 subgroup makes time estimates
of the age of their common male ancestor impossible.

Geographical Distribution of U1

Because there is only one confirmed U1+ negative for subgroups so far, no 
conclusions can be made as to geographical spread of men in this situation.

The DYS393=15 men were found in two different locations in Afghanistan.  Both 
were found among Hazara men

Origins of U1

Because the early years of U1 seem to be in the hunter-gatherer period before
historical record keeping, little can be said of this unless scientists identify U1
subgroups in ancient skeletons from that time period.  The more recent
aspects in the historical period really belong in the discussions of the subgroups.

The Hazara DYS393=15 men in the tribal group consist of Shia Muslim men of 
central Afghanistan  They are distinctive for being heavily intermixed with the
 C3 "Genghis Khan" group which undoubtedly came to Afghanistan with the Mongol 
invasion.  So it is possible the Mongol invasion brought these men down from 
somewhere in s.w. Russia since the other tribal groups in Afghanistan lack similar
G members in the sampling.

U1-related Maps

The map feature for U1 (and negative for subgroups) in the G Project only 
contains one man so is not useful. A map for the Hazaras of Afghanistan is not
available.

Source Information

The Wei methodology for dating SNP mutation differences from 2012:

Haber and others in 2012 provided in the supplement to their study several
G-P303 men with U1-type marker values from among Hazaras of Afghanistan

Alshamali and others in 2009 included seemingly U1 samples in data:


 U1 testing done in earlier times and not otherwise posted

                                                                                                                                     Marker designations in blue with values underneath 

Kit No. Surname Category Grp. SNP DYS
463
DYS
643
DYS
461
DYS
462
DYS
635
DYS
726
DYS
434
DYS
435
DYS
441
DYS
445
DYS
452
DYS
485
DYS
495
DYS
714
DYS
716
DYS
717
GATA
A10
GGAAT
1B07
DYF
397
DYF
399X
DYF
371X
DYF
385
DYF
401
DYF
411
DYS
725
DYS
494
DYS
505
DYS
522
DYS
533
DYS
549
DYS
556
DYS
575
DYS
589
DYS
636
DYS
638
DYS
710
DYF
408
DYS
464X
164222
Sivacyan.......
G2a3b1a1
 
U1
18.2t 19.1t 24c


  

Mostly southern Caucasus groups suspected U1       

                                                                                                                                     Marker designations in blue

Kit No. Surname Ancestral.origin
 
Haplo
Code
 
YSearch
Link
393 390 19
(394)
391 385
a
385
b
426 388 439 389
i
392 389
ii
458 459
a
459
b
455 454 447 437 448 449 464
a
464
b
464
c
464
d
464
e
464
f
460 GATA
H4
YCA
IIa
YCA
IIb
456 607 576 570 CDY
a
CDY
b
442 438 531 578 395
S1a
395
S1b
590 537 641 472 406
S1
511 425 413
a
413
b
557 594 436 490 534 450 444 481 520 446 617 568 487 572 640 492 565 441 461 463 445 452 YGATA
A10
YGATA
H4.1
462 GGAAT
1807
635
 
2 YHRD samples
Digora,
N. Ossetia
GENL
14 22 15 11 14 15 11 12 11 29
 
1 YHRD sample
Armenia
GENL
14 22 15 10 13 15 11 12 11 30
 
1 YHRD sample
Georgia
GENL
14 22 15 10 13 14 11 12 11 29
 
1 YHRD sample
Georgia
GENL
14 22 15 10 13 15 11 12 11 29
               YHRD is a public worldwide database

Mostly northwestern Caucasus and Uzbek groups suspected U1      

                                                                                                                                     Marker designations in blue

Kit No. Surname Ancestral.origin
 
Haplo
Code
 
YSearch
Link
393 390 19
(394)
391 385
a
385
b
426 388 439 389
i
392 389
ii
458 459
a
459
b
455 454 447 437 448 449 464
a
464
b
464
c
464
d
464
e
464
f
460 GATA
H4
YCA
IIa
YCA
IIb
456 607 576 570 CDY
a
CDY
b
442 438 531 578 395
S1a
395
S1b
590 537 641 472 406
S1
511 425 413
a
413
b
557 594 436 490 534 450 444 481 520 446 617 568 487 572 640 492 565 441 461 463 445 452 YGATA
A10
YGATA
H4.1
462 GGAAT
1807
635
 
1 YHRD sample
Kabardinians
s.w. Russia
GENL
14 23 15 10 13 14 11 12 11 29
 
1 YHRD sample
Kabardinians
s.w. Russia
GENL
13 22 15 10 13 14 11 12 11 29
 
1 YHRD sample
Kabardinians
s.w. Russia
GENL
14 22 15 10 13 14 11 12 11 29
 
1 YHRD sample
Kabardinians
s.w. Russia
GENL
15 23 14 10 13 14 11 12 11 29
 
1 YHRD sample
Kabardinians
s.w. Russia
GENL
15 23 15 10 13 14 11 12 11 30
 
1 YHRD sample
Kabardinians
s.w. Russia
GENL
15 23 15 10 13 14 11 12 11 30
 
Anonymous
Uzbekistan
Karkalpak
PART
 
14 23 15 10 13 14 11 12 11 12 11 29 10
 
Anonymous
Uzkekistan
CrimeanTatar
PART
 
14 23 15 10 13 14 11 12 11 12 11 29 10

                 YHRD is a public worldwide database

Samples that might fall anywhere within U1
                                                                                                            Marker designations in blue
Kit No.
Surname
Ancestral.origin
 
Haplo
Code
 
YSearch
Link
39339019
(394)
391385
a
385
b
426388439389
i
392389
ii
458459
a
459
b
455454447437448449464
a
464
b
464
c
464
d
464
e
464
f
460GATA
H4
YCA
IIa
YCA
IIb
456607576570CDY
a
CDY
b
442438531578395
S1a
395
S1b
590537641472406
S1
511425413
a
413
b
557594436490534450444481520446617568487572640492565441461463445452YGATA
A10
YGATA
H4.1
462GGAAT
1807
635
ResearchStudy2*
Iraq
?
1421141012141114121128 
 
YHRD
2 samplea*
Iran
(Bakthiari)
PART
1422161012141111121128 162011161021
 
YHRD
sample*
 Iran
(Gilaki)
PART
1422151012141111121128 172110151020
 
YHRD
sample*
 Iran
(Gilaki)
PART
1422151012141112121128 162012151021
 
YHRD
sample*
 Iran
(Gilaki)
PART
1322161012141111121128 162011161021
 
YHRD
sample*
 Iran
(Gilaki)
PART
13+152215101214111112+131128 14+162112151021
 
Research Study4
Bamyan, Afghanistan (Hazara)
P303
15221510121411121112112816 162012151021
 
Research Study4
Puli Khumri, Afghanistan
(Hazara)
P303
15221510121411121112112816 162011151021

            YHRD is a public worldwide database.   Research study 2 is Alshamali.     Research study 4 is Haber (see above)

Special Testing

The following L140+ men neg. or not fully tested for subgroups have the following results
for newer, poorly defined SNP mutations:  
                                                     items in red are L140 subgrps   + means positive, - means negative               

L13-      Elgin, Gregory, Muratov, Scavo, Sivacyan, Sonmez, 
L78-       Deniz, Kauffmann, Sivacyan
L1266-  Scavo
 
         more info about these SNPs can be found at:
                   type L1325, for example, in the Landmark box.  After searching, look
                               for the small L1325 in the colored area and click on it.
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