This is the home page for men who have the P287 mutation but negative for its subgroup.
Eventually whole Y sequencing will identify new SNPs that will allow men in this category
to become yet another main group of general G.
This is an incredibly tiny subgroup of G men. Virtually all P287 men belong to one of its
P287 men represent a branch of M201, the mutation which all G men share. But probably 90%
of M201 men fall somewhere within the P287 branch. See the G-M201 tab on the
left for information about G in general.
Because P287 dominates just about everywhere in the world over its M342 sister subgroup,
this page will detail all the general speculation about the P287 group in its entirely and
what is really known of this massive subgroup.
P287's has two subgroups: P15 and M3115. There was an additional subgroup once
listed for P287, but it was removed from the
tree because the researchers only found it one man, and no one else since has had this.
Age of G-P287
P287 is really old. It could be as old as 30,000 years ago. Currently a member of this
general P287 group who is negative for the P15 and M377 subgroups is being
fully sequenced. And this will likely provide considerable information about when
the subgroups broke off from P287.
The most reliable dating system involves doing Y-DNA testing in ancient skeletons.
There are not many of those available. What we do know from recent testing is that P287
men were in the majority among the skeletons tested in Europe in the period 7,000 to
5,000 years ago. This is the period in which agriculture and metal tools were brought
to Europe. Crops were harvested in the Near East thousands of years earlier. This
was quite a revelation to have G men in the majority in the skeletal remains because
it was not suspected due to G's small presence in Europe later. The Corded Ware
culture out of Spain is attributed to have spread out into Europe displacing the G
domination. These early G European probably could be assigned to a much more
detailed P287 subgroup, but the researchers generally did not test for subgroups.
In the 2011 study by Lacan et al. at the Avellaner cave burial site for farmers in
northeastern Spain, they found five P287+ skeletal remains belonging to P287's P15 subgroup.
These were dated to about 7,000 years ago by radiocarbon dating. So we know for sure that
P287 and P15 are at least that old and that men with these mutations had arrived in Europe
by then. The authors of the Spanish study did indicate that the Avellaner men had rare marker
The 2010 study by Haak et al. at the Neolithic cemetery of Derenburg Meerenstieg II, north
central Germany, which contained burial artifacts belonging to the Linear Pottery culture, known
in German as Linearbandkeramik (LBK), they reported on a skeleton which could not be dated by
radiocarbon dating, but other skeletons there were dated to between 5,100 and 6,100 years
old. The most detailed SNP mutation identified in this skeleton was L30 a subgroup within P287
but not further subtyped.
Lacan et al. produced another study in 2011 of skeletons found at Treilles, the type-site of a Late Stone Age
group of farmers. This is in the south of France, with skeletons dated to 5,000 years ago. They found
P287's subgroup P15 in 20 of 22 samples.
Andreas Keller et al. in 2012 reported that Oetzi, the Iceman mummy found in the n. e. Italy Italian
Alps dated to about 5,000 years ago belonged to a P287 subgroup. The raw data for this later
showed us he belonged to the P166 subgroup.
The most recent P287 skeletons were found in a high-status burial at Ergolding in present-day
Bavaria, southern Germany, and dated to the Merovingian dynasty period by Vanek et al. in
2009. These were not subgrouped with P287 but the marker values are suggestive of the L13
So the data are very fragmentary. While they show P287 men in Europe by 7000 yrs ago, it is not
at all clear when the various subgroups arrived or may -- in a few cases -- have originated in Europe.
While P287 is also found in northern Africa, southern Asia and western China, we currently do not
have a clue when P287 men moved there. While it is logical that they emigrated from the Near
East area, there is no guarantee of this in the context of hunter-gatherer societies.
Rootsi et al. in 2012 made the most detail time calculations involving P287 men. These
are based on the number of mutations in marker samples and are not considered as
reliable as counting SNPs in whole sequencing. In addition, these are coalescence times
and ancestors with the mutation in question may have existed for longer periods in
time before the most recent common ancestor. The total coalescence time they calculated
for P287 was 16,400 yrs using 674 P287 samples. Using more modest numbers of samples
they indicated coalescence times for samples from Balkans as 16,000 yrs, Caucasus 14,000
yrs, Crete 6,500 yrs, Corsica 14,600 yrs, Druze of the Levant 4,800 yrs, eastern Europe
13,200 yrs, Germany 13,100 yrs, Greece 11,600 yrs, Iran 12,400 yrs, Italy 12,900 yrs,
Ashkenazi Jews 3,000, Sephardic Jews 14,600 yrs, Pakistan 15,700 yrs, Palestine
5,200 yrs, Russia 16,700 yrs, Switzerland 14,100 yrs, Turkey 16,100 yrs, Afghanistan
2,100 yrs. The Ashkenazi figure may be correct for one of the G Ashkenazi subgroups,
but could not be correct for all of them who are quite diverse. A long coalescence time
in a country does not guarantee the men have been living there that long because there
may have been migrations to there by varies groups.
The age of the P287 subgroup consisting of men with two values of 10 at markers DYS464
is probably 5,000 or more years based on comparisons of the available 67 marker samples.
They have each other as their nearest marker matches. The full Y-DNA sequencing pending
for one of these men probably will not resolve this question of age unless a second man is
Distribution of G-P287
P287 has the same general distribution worldwide as M201. This topic is covered
in the G-M201 section The only variation is that P287's percentage decreases
in areas where its sister subgroup M342 has some prevalence, such as Iran
and some countries to its west.
Questionable Opinions about P287 Migrations, High Mountains,
There have been some statements on the Internet that the P287 group has
some association with high mountains. While there does seem some increased
percentage of the G men in the populations of western Austria and parts of
Switzerland, the southern side of the Alps and the Pyrenees seem to have reduced
G populations. For example, there is a higher percentage of P287 men in southern
Italy than in the more mountainous south. While there are lots of P287 men in
the high mountains of the Caucasus, they are just as numerous in the lower
elevation countries to the south.
One of the most frequently heard opinions -- always undocumented -- is that various
P287 subgroups originated north of the Caucasus. Related to this, there has been
speculation that the Alan Samaritans of other types of Samaritans spread G
into Europe when they moved into all parts of Europe about 2000 yrs ago. The
origin of this speculation seems to have been the finding earlier in the first decade
of the 2000s that there were heavy concentrations of G persons in the Caucasus.
Initially there were identified as just G, but we later identified them as very
specific subgroups of P287.
There were two major groups immediately north of the Caucasus area in the period
of interest who engaged in migrations: the Sarmatians and the Huns. Both groups
have cultural similarities, such as manipulating infant head shapes. One after
another, the two moved into the area north of the Caucasus from the east when a
westward movement provided better options than resisting groups to the east.
The Sarmatians subsumed an existing population of Scythians during their occupation
of this area. Like the Scythians, the Sarmatians spoke an Iranian language. The
more central portion geographically was identified as Alan Sarmatians. Strabo claimed
these groups could assemble hundreds of thousands of warriors. Being nomadic, with a
history of moving en masse, it is conceivable that the Sarmatians when they began their
Great Migration westward in the 1st cenntury B. C. E. took with them a high percentage
of their population. The Huns were also nomadic and had been as far east as central
Asia. Complicating an understanding of the genetic make-up of these groups, scholars
have described both Sarmatians and Huns as confederations of groups rather than
unitary ethnic groups.
Greek historian Diodorus Siculus related that the Scythians had carried Medes to the
River Don north of the Caucasus presumably from today's northwestern Iran, this
event giving rise to their name Sauromatians. Scythians had occupied Media 653 to
625, B.C.E. Pliny also suggest Sarmatians descended from Medes. But historians have
difficulty explaining how the Sarmatians instead seemed to come from central Asia
off to the east in their occupation of Scythian lands around the 5th century B.C.E.
The Huns in their westward migration had reached today's Ukraine by the 2nd century
C.E., replacing the Sarmatians who left, and Huns moved into lands to the west in the
5th century. Under Hun rule, some Alans who had not migrated remained in the area
north of the Caucasus. In the Middle Ages, invading Mongols reportedly forced these
Alans down to the Caucasus area. And there are Alan remnants who appeared in multiple
locations. A group of 30,000 Alans, for example, formed the royal guard of the Yuan
court in Dadu (Beijing, China) and a group of Alans arrived from unknown locations in
Medieval Hungary. While it is conceivable that many of the G persons in Europe proper
today had ancestors part of the Great Migration
which carried large populations out of today's southwestern Russia, they left few close
relatives in that area if this was the case. P16/P18 which predominates among the
North Ossetians is rare in Europe west of Russia. L1266 common among the Adyghe
of the western Caucasus is also rarely seen to the west. The most common G subgroup
in Europe, Z725, is almost never found in the Caucasus region. Other common
European G categories, such as M406, L2024 and Z1903 are rare in the northern
Caucasus. All these mentioned subgroups belong to the P287 mother group. The
dominant types of G seen in the northern Caucasus are rare elsewhere except along
the southern border of the Caucasus among Abkhazians, Svans, S. Ossetians and
Armenia and Georgia to the south of the Caucasus have within their samples a similar
variety of P287 subgroups as that seen in Europe west of Russia for the most part. These
were once part of the Babylonian and Persian Empires. Assyrians deported Jews to
Armenia and 10,000 Jews moved there on their own. With the Islamic conquest other
men from the Middle East moved to that area. The Mountain Jews of Azerbaijan are
thought to be emigrants from Persia originally, and the non-Jewish Tats of that region
also point to an emigration from Persia. Kurds from Iran and Turkey moved to
Georgia and Armenia in the late 1800s. There was also a significant outflow of persons--
perhaps more than 100,000 persons--from Armenia during the Byzantine Empire. In
addition, 10,000 Armenians are said to have settled in Cyprus in 578 C.E.
All this complicates trying to discover the make-up of the south Caucasus countries 2,000
years ago. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mountain_Jews http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tat_people_(Caucasus)
Several studies done of the Caucasus area in 2011 by Balanovsky and Yunusbayev
et. al., argued that evidence points to a Near Eastern not a Russian origin for the
peoples of the Caucasus (where P287 is so common).
P287 Movements during the Roman Empire?
The Roman Empire uniquely covered the southern Caucasus lands, the Middle East
and Europe. They recruited locals to man distant army garrisons. None of the Roman
legions bore the name of locations in the southern Caucasus. But there were legions
from the Middle East and some Sarmatians who have once been in today's Ukraine
were recruited from their new home base in today's Hungary? to man posts in
England. They were sent to today's France to quell a revolt, but there is no information
on whether they returned to England. And there were already P287 men in southern
Europe who were likely recruited to go north to settle and man outposts. There has
been lots of speculation on the Internet tying most of the G in Europe to Alan
Sarmatians and the Roman Empire. Besides lack of any evidence for this, the main
type of P287 -- namely Z725 -- is found in just as high percentages in the southern
areas of the European Roman Empire as in the border areas manned by mercenaries.
We have better date for one of the Alan groups. The Alan Sarmatians definitely
accompanied Goths to the mountainous area just south of today's Spain-France border.
In the 197 samples in the YHRD database from that area only a trivial amount of
haplogroup G can be deduced and well below the usual European G percentage.
In northwestern Spain, the percentage of G is above average and higher than in some
other areas of Spain. But there has been no Sarmatian link to that area of Spain at all.
Jewish Spread of P287?
There are Jewish subgroups throughout P287. Pinpointing how they became
separate G subgroups can be quite challenging. Jewish Radhanites, for example,
had significant presences in western and central Europe in the early Medieval period
with trade routes that included the eastern shore of the Caucasus together with some
known Jewish communities in the Caucasus region. Sometimes with unique
access across national borders, they conceivably have spread P287 DNA. The Jewish
Diaspora about 2000 years ago spread Jews all over the Mediterrean when they
left the Holy Land or were expelled. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jewish_diaspora
And with the restrictive late Medieval laws in Europe, some Jews were known to have
migrated to the Middle East, today's Iran and other regional locations. The Jewish
communities in the Holy Land contributed substantially to the Persian (now Iranian)
population beginning in 727 and 721 B.C.E. with the deportation of Jews to Media
and Persia. This was followed by the deportation of over 27,000 Jews to southwestern
Persia. In 680 B.C.E. to escape another bad situation, there was a Jewish emigration
primarily into the Persian city of Isfahan. In the 6th century B.C.E. at the end of the
Babylonian Captivity, Cyrus allowed additional Jews into Persia. In 135 C.E., there was
yet another wave of emigration into Persia by Jews fleeing the Roman persecutions. At
the time of the original emigrations, Jews intermarried with the local population. It is
unknown if some of the G migrants into the mentioned countries intermarried with
locals or were local converts. For more information of this question, link to
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jews_with_Haplogroup_G Most Jews today are Ashkenazis who
trace ancestry only to n.e. Europe. The specific origins of each Jewish P287 subgroup
will be discussed on their individual pages. We do know with the Z1903 Jewish
subgroup from whole genomes sequencing that it was over 3000 yrs since it
shared a common ancestor with other Z1903 subgroups. But this sheds no light on
where the Z1903 Jewish ancestors lived between then and recent centuries.
Spread of P287 by Sea Peoples?
We know P287 men were already in Europe 7000 years ago. It may have been in
Sardinia 5,000 years ago because the type of P287 to which the Iceman mummy
belongs is almost uniquely common in Sardinia in the world. And it would have
required seafaring skills to reach the island. In general, G is found in unusually
high percentages in Sardinia, up to 15%. And tellingly this pattern is also found in
the central highlands which are not thought to have been occupied by invaders in
the historical period. So the P287 presence in Europe predated the Sea Peoples
and Phoenicians by thousands of years. This does not mean that these later
seaborne invaders did not augment the G population. P287's subgroup of M406
is unusually common in Turkey and Greece, and the second most populous M406
proven location in the southern European Mediterranean. There are also suggestive
locations of unusual M406 percentages in Lebanon and Iraq.
Germanic invasions in the Early Middle Ages as Source of P287 spread?
We know from studies of subgroups of haplogroups R and I that certain subgroups quite
common in the Germany-Poland area and in eastern Europe for probably 3 to 5 millenia have
failed to disperse in any numbers to the more distant areas of Europe. So it does not appear
that the invasions by Germanic groups were responsible for dispersal of P287 subgroups
The Raetians as P287 Migrants?
The Raetians inhabited Switzerland, Austria and part of southern Germany before and during
the Roman Empire. There is no consensus that Raetians were of Etruscan origin, but some think
this is the case. The Etruscans were prominent in northern Italy during the millennium before
the Roman Empire, and most scholars think they were migrants from the Near East.
See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Etruscan_origins for more info on Etruscan genetics. In one study
not mentioned at this site for which the link above is provided, the DNA found in Medieval burials in
an Etruscan site failed to match that of the local population. Valid conclusions about the Etruscans
are hard to make. Map of Etruscan and Raetian lands http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Iron_Age_Italy.png
The Raeti tribes after their initial defeat quickly became loyal subjects of the empire who contributed
disproportionate numbers of recruits to the imperial Roman army's auxiliary corps. The auxilia
represented 60% of the Roman army. This meant they could have been stationed in other
locations in the empire and contributed to the local population. Various P287 subgroups are
found all over Europe south of Scandinavia, and it is unlikely either the Raetians or Etruscans
could have been the source for this widespread dispersal. In addition, G is more common in
southern Italy than in the north where the Etruscans lived.
But there are two features of P287 in Europe that raise interest in the Raetians.
First, the L725 subgroup persons in England, Wales, Scotland, southwestern Germany all have varied
and differing types of Swiss men (both genetically close and genetically distant) among their nearest
matches when comparing 67-marker samples. In some comparisons, particular Swiss men
will be close to some Englishmen, for example, and a different set of Swiss will be close to another
English cluster. And the crude time calculations for the nearest matches point to the period of the
Roman Empire as to when there was a separation from the Swiss. Various regiments composed
of these Swiss Raetians were known to have been stationed in southern Germany and Britain,
and there was also Romanization going on in Switerland with some locals becoming Roman citizens.
A further complication is the known stationing of a Swiss auxiliary regiment in Turkey (Cappadocia)
where there is no visible Z725 presence in Turkey today. Not all the regiments the Romans sent out
to parts of the empire survived in initial battles, but little is known of the history of each. The Swiss
samples in the Haplogroup G Project are primarily from central Switzerland. This may or may not
be significant since some regional diffusion would be expected.
Second, a group of Austrian researchers in a presentation reportedly found an enormous percentage of
P287 men from the Z725 subgroup in the southern humps of Tyrol in Austria. Details and
confirmation are not available. This would have been once within Raetia. These same researchers
also earlier published a study providing G samples from Tyrol's eastern portion, and marker values
for half are very consistent with the P287 subgroup of P16/P18 found otherwise almost exclusively
in the mid Caucasus area.
There is also a booklet by Alfred Toth and Linus Brunner which argues that Raetians were exiles from
Babylonia. The most specific reasons for the migration were (a) the conquering of Babylon by the
Assyrian King Tukulti-Ninurta I who instigated one of the first big historical deportations and (b)
intrusion of the Amorites and especially the Aramaens who caused major problems for existing
residents. Others have not rushed to adopted this theory, but the authors seem to be major
researchers in this field.
Little is known of eastern migrations. P287 men are found in southern Asia and in western China.
While the possible contribution of the Greek army of Alexander the Great in Afghanistan does
not seem to have left much of a genetic impact, there is a definite connection between Ashkenazi
Jews and some other Mediterranean and Near Eastern men and the Pathans of Afghanistan,
Pakistan and pockets of northern India. The available evidence, which will be enumerated in the
G-M377 tab, suggest the P287 Pathans earlier had origins in Jewish communities to the west.
The following P287 men negative for all subgroups of P287 have the following results
for newer, poorly defined SNP mutations:
+ means positive, - means negative
L156+ Miale, Shorvoghlian
L190- Miale, Shorvoghlian
more info about these SNPs can be found at:
type L1325, for example, in the Landmark box. After searching, look
for the small L1325 in the colored area and click on it.
Test Results for Markers not in Family Tree DNA's 67-marker test
Marker designations in blue with values underneath
Balanovsky and others in 2011 suggested a Near East origin for the Caucasus populations:
Yunusbayev and others argued the same in 2011:
Rootsi and others made the same argument in 2012 and provided coalescence times for various
Cruciani and others showed in 2011 that -- unlike G -- R haplogroups have had uneven
distribution in Europe: [important maps included]
These men wrote of the ancient migrations in historical times:
De Boor, C., trl., Theophylactus Simocatta, Historiae. (Leipzig, 1887, p 143)
De Boor, C. ed., Nicocephoro, Opuscula Historica (Leipzig, 1890), p 518-23
Ghevond, Histoire des guerres et des Conquetes des Arabes en Armenie. (trl. from Armenian, Paris, 1856)
Sebo, Histoire d'Heraclius. trl. from Armenian. (F. Macler, Paris, 1904), p 30-31.
Theopanes, I: 451-2.
Pliny indicated Scythians had occupied Media 653-625 B.C.E. He also suggested Sarmatians
descended from Medes
Pliny, Natural History, VI, ch 7, W. H. Jones, transl., Wm. Heinemann, London, 1949-54
Strabo reported that Alans could assemble hundreds of thousands of warriors:
Strabo, Geography (XXIII, 11)
Information on Jewish deportations to Persia in:
Price, Massoume, A Brief History of Iranian Jews.
Historian Diodorus Siculus related that the Scythians had carried Medes to the River Don north
of the Caucasus, presumably from today's northwestern Iran, this event giving rise to their name
Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca Historica, Lib. II, 43, p 29.
Information about Oetzi, the Iceman mummy abt 5000 yrs old:
Interview Dr. Eduard Egarter-Vigl, Head of Conservation and Assistant to research projects of the Archaeological
Museum in Bozen. From the Docu-Movie:"Ötzi, ein Archäologiekrimi" [Ötzi, a Archaeology Crime] by Christine
Sprachmann. TV-Broadcasted by 3sat 10th August 2011 and br-alpha 13th September 2011.
Keller and others provided the full report in 2012:
Vanek and others in 2009 reported on P289 skeletal remains in Germany from 7th century:
Lacan and others in 2011 gave information on mostly P287 skeletons from 5000 yrs ago in France
The same authors in 2011 gave information on P287 skeletons from 7000 yrs ago in Spain
Haak and others in 2010 reported on P287 skeletons from Central Europe about 5000 yrs ago.
Boattini and others in 2013 showed the higher percentage of P287 in southern Italy than in the north:
Contu in 2008 and Zei in 2003 and others described the haplogroups of Sardinia and time relationships
to the population.
Abstract found here for the Berger presentation which mentions the high G concentrations in far south
Tyrol: [further unverified info was provided by an attendee]
This is a history of Hungary which discusses the Alan emigration there:
Engel, Pál, The Realm of St. Stephen: A History of Medieval Hungary, 895-1526. I B. Tauris, London, 2001.
More studies of Sarmatians and the Roman Empire:
Bachrach, Bernard S., A History of the Alans in the West: From Their First Appearance in the Sources
of Classical Antiquity through the Early Middle Ages. Univ. of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, 1973.
_______, Armies and Politics in the Early Medieval West. Variorim, Aldershort, Hampshire, 1993.
Broughton, T. Robert, The Provinces of the Roman Empire: The European Provinces. Univ. of Chicago
Press, Chicago, 1968.
Elton, Hugh, Frontiers of the Roman Empire. Indiana Univ. Press, Bloomington, 1996.
Grant, Michael, The Army of the Caesars. M. Evans & Co., New York, 1974.
Hammata, Janos, "Studies in the History and Language of the Sarmatians," Acta Universitatis de
Attila József Nominatae, Acta Antique et Archaeologica, Tomus XIII, 1970, pp 1-130.
Müller, Urs, Der Einfluss der Sarmaten auf die Germanen . Peter Lang, Bern, 1998.
Sulimirski, T., The Sarmatians. Praeger Publishers, New York, 1970. [This is perhaps the largest collection
of pictures of Sarmatian artifacts. Certain conjectures in his epilogue about Sarmatian genetic relationships
with the Sorbs, Croats, etc. are not validated by the DNA record.]
Selected studies listing G-M201 or G-P289/G-P15 percentages in the population:
Adams, S. M. et al., "The Genetic Legacy of Religious Diversity and Intolerance: Paternal Lineages
of Christians, Jews and Muslims in the Iberian Peninsula," American Journal of Human
Genetics, 2008, vol. 83(6), pp 725-36. [G samples are listed in suppementary data]
Capelli et al., 2007, a study of the Italian peninsula haplogroups
Derenko, Miroslava at al., "Contrasting Patterns of Y-Chromosome Variation in South Siberian
Populations from Baikal and Altai-Sayan Regions," Human Genetics, 2006, vol. 118, pp. 591-604.
[Lists in table 1 the G percentages among various southern Siberian groups.]
El-Sibai, Mirvat, "Geographical Structure of the Y-Chromosomal Genetic Landscape of the
Levant: A Coastal-Inland Contrast," Annals of Human Genetics , Aug 2009 [ahead of publication]
[has updated listing of G percentages and new haplotypes in 7 Levant countries]
Firasat, Sadaf, et al., "Y Chromosomal Evidence for a Limited Greek Contribution to the Pathan
Population of Pakistan," European Journal of Human Genetics, 2006, vol. 15, pp. 121-26.
[lists in Figure 1 percentages of G (M201) in three northern Pakistan populations]
Hammer, Michael F. et al., "Dual Origins of the Japanese: Common Ground for Hunter-Gatherer and
Farmer Y-Chromosomes," Journal of Human Genetics , vol. 51(1), pp. 47-58.
[Lists in supplementary material, G percentages from all over southern and eastern Asia]
King, R. J. et. al., Differential Y-Chromosome Anatolian Influences on the Greek and Cretan
Neolithic," Annals of Human Genetics, 2008, vol. 72, pp. 205-14. [Lists in figure 2 the
percentages of certain G subgroups in Crete and Greece.]
Martinez, Laisel et al., "Paleolithic Y-Haplogroup Heritage Predominates in a Cretan Highland
Plateau," European Journal of Human Genetics, 2007, vol. 15, pp. 485-93. [Figure
2 lists the G percentage found in 3 areas of Crete.]
Nasidze, Ivan et al.,"Genetic Evidence concerning the Origins of South and North Ossetians,"
Annals of Human Genetics, 2004, vol. 68, pp. 588-99.
Nasidze, Ivan et al., "MtDNA and Y-Chromosome Variation in Kurdish Groups," Annals of Human
Genetics, 2005, vol. 69, pp. 401-12.
Qamar, Raheel et al., "Y Chromosomal DNA Variation in Pakistan," American Journal of Human Genetics,
2002, vol. 70(5), pp. 1107-24.
Regueiro, M., et al., "Iran: Tricontinental Nexus for Y-Chromosome Driven Migration," Human Heredity,
2006, vol. 61, pp. 132-43.
Sengupta, Sanghamitra, "Polarity and Temporality of High-Resolution Y-Chromosome Distributions in India
Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central
Asian Pastoralists ," American Journal of Human Genetics, 2006, vol. 78(2), pp. 202-21.
Table of Haplotypes/Haplogroups in this article (Pakistani and Indian G1, G2, G5 samples --
now called G1, G2a, G2b respectively).
Shen, Peidong, et al., "Reconstruction of Patrilineages and Matrilineages of Samaritans and Other
Israeli Populations from Y-Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Variation,"
Human Mutation, 2004, vol. 24, pp. 248-60. [Lists G percentages among some Israeli and
Middle Eastern groups in figure 1.]
Shlush, Liran L. et al., "The Druze: A Population Genetic Refugium of the Near East," PLoSOne,
May 2008, 3(5), pp 1-9. [has about 35 G samples in supplementary data]
Zalloua, Pierre A. et al., "Identifying Genetic Traces of Historical Expansions: Phoenician Footprints in the
Mediterranean ," American Journal of Human Genetics, 2008, vol 83(5), pp 633-42. [Lists varied
G samples in supplementary data.]
_____________, "Y-Chromosomal Diversity in Lebanon ," American Journal of Human Genetics ,
2008, vol 82(4), pp 873-82. [Lists varied G samples in supplementary data.]
The Yunusbaev and Balanovsky studies mentioned above should also be listed here. A Rootsi
study will be covered within particular G-P287 subgroups.