Research landmarks

Landmarks in Haplogroup G research

Jun 2013                  First promising Geno 2.0 test items confirmed as valid in individual
                               tests  and added to the G tree.  Geno's PF3146 added as
                               replacement in defining a major subgroup instead of L223 which proved too variable

Jan 2013                  First G Y-DNA samples completed private sequencing at Full Genomes Corp. at 
                               high coverage.  They were within Z724 subgroup.

Sep 2012        -        L149.1 found to be a new major subgroup causing considerable 
                                revision of G branches below G-P15

Jun 2012         --      L293 becomes major new category encompassing almost all men
                               with DYS392=10.  The first ever study concentrating on haplogroup 
                               G (Rootsi et al.) published.

Feb 2012         --      Confirmation that Z1903 is the same as the large DYS568=9 group, but
                               most belong to the Z724 subgroup.  Publication of study of the Iceman
                               mummy's Y-DNA (G -L91) shows unusual % L91 in Sardinia & Corsica

Nov 2011         --     This year ancient burials in southern France and Spain were
                              found to be have G-P15. French (5000 yrs ago) Spanish
                              (7000 yrs ago)
                              Number of haplogroup G subgroups reaches 93.
                              L223 confirmed as mother group for all men with double DYS19 values.
                                      [and later as mother group also for 2 other branches]
Sep 2011        --     A major branch of G-M406 added which may cover a fourth
                             of M406 men -- L645    Several smaller SNP branches
                             found in L140  men.
                             Hundreds of new G SNPs found in six men in 1000 Genomes
Aug 2011        --     It is revealed that the frozen Iceman from the Alps (abt 5000 yrs ago)
                             belongs to G-91 and his nearest relatives live in Sardinia.
                             Balanovsky et al., then Yunusbaev et al. this year publish 2 separate
                             studies detailing Y-DNA in the Caucasus region where G is very
May 2011        --    First two DYS568=9 men identified outside Europe (in N. Ossetia)
Apr 2011         --     G-L293 added to the list of recognized G SNPs.
                               The number of G subgroups based on SNPs or marker value
                               oddities reaches 72.  About 30 additional clusters of G men are known.

Mar 2011        --     Family Tree DNA added considerable number of G SNP
                                tests to its panel of tests (the deep clade test).  They also 
                                for the first time made publicly available results of all SNP tests
                                done for project members..

Feb 2011        --     Haplogroup G project reaches almost 2500 members

Jan 2011         --     SNP L497 discovered in testing at 23andMe.  This SNP
                               characterizes related men with DYS388=13 and represents abt half G
                               persons in Europe and becomes major new category.

fall 2010          --     Some new G subgroups added based on oddities in marker
                               values in tests offered at Family Tree DNA that are not 
                               routinely tested in the panel of tests.

Apr 2010        --     Testing in a man from India determined that L140
                               is not found in all G-P303 persons, and that
                               L140 neg persons form a new category.  This
                               causes renaming of some G categories.
                              First detailed sample from a U1+ only person
                              becomes available.

Mar 2010        --    Availability of new samples from Turkey and areas to the
                               east indicate that the L13 group has members
                               there who lack the characteristic marker values seen in

Feb 2010         --   Availability of new detailed samples from Iran and that region of 
                              the world indicate that abbreviated samples from there that
                              seemed similar to European DYS388= 13 men   
                              were not similar.  In both cases, this means that the mutations
                              for these groups theoretically could have originated in Europe  
                              over 2500 yrs. ago instead of coming with a major migration.

fall 2009          --   Additional new G SNPS identified in Walk through the 
                              Y Project and in data files at 23andMe.  L141 
                              becomes a major new category prompting partial G

July 2009          --  Additional new G SNPs located in the Walk through the Y
                              Project at Family Tree DNA, such as L139, L177
                              requiring re-classification of G categories.

May 2009         -- Family Tree DNA makes available a new map system for the
                             haplogroup project that allows visualizing ancestry of participants
                             according to DNA categories.

April 2009       -- Over a dozen men submit DNA to Family Tree DNA for detailed 
                            sequencing in the quest for discovery of new G SNPs.  (Walk
                            Through the Y Project) 
                            L91 SNP mutation first identified at Family Tree DNA (G2a4)

March 2009      -- this G web site integrated into the haplogroup G project at Family
                             Tree DNA.  Project samples reclassified according to predicted
                             DNA subgroups rather than by country of origin.  Non-project
                             samples also included.

December 2008   -- Ray Banks notes that the odd value of 9 at DYS568 reliably characterizes 
                                a large subgroup [later determined to have the Z1903 SNP]      

late fall 2008       -- Family Tree DNA lab makes available to the public the P303 SNP.

April 2008         --  the new Y-Chromosome Consortium G chart  is published in Genome Research
                               with no changes from October 2007 version

March 2008      --  The first detailed DNA sample from a L30 [earlier just P15] population in the
                              Caucasus region becomes available.  This sample proves to be the
                              closest genetic cousin to most of the G persons of northern Europe
                              and helps set the date for migration to Europe.
January 2008     --  A study of Greece by R. J. King and co-researchers lists a new SNP mutation
                              (M406) found in G men there and also among men from an earlier Turkish study.

October 2007    --  Pre-release circulation of new chart from Y-Chromosome Consortium shows
                               a newly identified SNP mutation (P287) that causes the reclassification of many
                               haplogroup G categories as new subgroups with new names.  Michael
                               Hammer of Univ. of Arizona also announces another new subcategory (P76)

September 2007-- Ted Kandell begins G2c [then termed G5] project at Family Tree DNA.
                                      [these are M377+ men]
                         --  Ray Banks releases updated clade page, with listings for new clades
                              and info on some useful slow markers that subdivide some clades.

August 2007       -- First detailed DNA sample available from the dominant G group in 
                               the Caucasus region, which is also found to be P18+

July 2007           -- Thomas Krahn of Family Tree DNA Lab reports that the
                              SNP P16, P18 and P20 are subject to gene conversions, and loss of the SNP can occur.

                          -- Haplogroup G Project exceeds 900 members.

early 2007         --  new Whit Athey calculator available that allows also prediction
                              of several G categories

November 2006 -- University of Central Florida researchers Jack Ballantyne and Lynn M.
                              Symms, together with Gonzaga Univ. scientist Dennis Garvey
                              identify new subcategories of P15 pertinent to most persons in Europe.
                              They also determine that a large group of mostly Ashkenazi Jews
                              belong to an M377 subgroup

summer 2006     -- M. Regueiro and others publish a study showing a high concentration
                             (but not majority) of M285 in Iran.

summer 2006     -- Peter Christy begins Haplogroup G project at Family Tree DNA

early 2006         -- Ted Kandell launches G2c [then termed G5] forum at [M377 men]

early 2006         -- Sanghamitra Sengupta and others publish a study that identifies G2c [then
                             termed G5] individuals for the first time (M377 men). The G2c men were residents of Pakistan

early 2006         -- Ray Banks initiates this web site with listings of country-by-country percentages
                             of G in the Old World and identification of  clades within G.

January 2006     -- Ray Banks initiates a forum at Rootsweb for Haplogroup G topics

late 2005           -- testing of some new subcategories of G other than G2a [then termed G2]
                             become available to the public

abt 2005           -- Whit Athey makes available a calculator for predicting P15 men 
                             [and other haplogroups] based on marker values

2005                 -- Carl-Johan Swardenheim launches short-lived G discussion forum

abt. 2004          --  testing for haplogroup G and G2a become available to the public

2004                 -- Cengiz Cinnioglu and others publish a study that identifies for the
                             first time the M285, P16/P18 and M286
                             subcategories -- all among Turkish men.

2003-2004      --  Ivan Nasidze and others publish two studies showing in the data
                            an extremly high percentage of haplogroup G in N. Ossetia, Russia,
                            and significant percentages south of the Caucasus.

2003                -- Gianna Zei and others publish a study that shows unusual concentration
                            of haplogroup G in northern Sardinia. [But later found to be similar
                            to haplogroup G throughout the island, including the earliest settled areas]

2002               -- The new Y-Chromosome Consortium establishes nomenclature
                           for haplogroups based primarily on letters of the alphabet.

2002?             -- Michael Hammer of the Univ. of Arizona (and others?) identify the M201 
                           and P15 SNP mutations.