..Recommended Additional Testing

This section discusses ordering SNP tests, usually as predicted by marker values.  If you do not understand these terms, 
please first read the DNA Explanation section (to your left)

IMPORTANT EXPLANATIONS:  Family Tree DNA only updates its official listing of G categories every few years.  And
the G tree of categories and its recommendations for testing are often out of date.  The 2014 G tree produced by them
was meant to conform to the 2012 tests assembled for the Geno 2.0 test.  Key items were omitted because they
occur near or in genes. Independent sources looking at their G tree are concerned about many aspects of it.  This
is surely the worst tree ever produced by that company, and project administrators should be consulted before ordering
anything on that tree.  

This does not mean they are unaware of new categories.  To the contrary, they discovered some of the important new
G subgroups.

Family Tree DNA leaves it to haplogroup project administrators to round up the key samples needed to test to show
the boundaries of coverage for each SNP.  They used to do this themselves for the most part, but they stopped doing
this in 2011.  This change may be due partially to the fact that project administrators have access to some additional testing
from other labs.  

How can we predict what subgroup a person belongs to?   Family Tree DNA itself predicts whether a person is G or not 
when no SNP testing has been done.  What they do is look at the marker values you have and see who has the 
nearest marker values to you.  If all the nearest matches are confirmed G persons, they then predict you are a G
and insert this information on your results page and our roster. They have declined to predict G subgroups though 
this is within their capability to do so.

The project also uses this method to predict who belongs to a particular subgroup.  Sometimes the marker values 
-- even at 12 markers -- are so characteristic that there is nearly 100% assurance that one will have certain SNPs.  
We do not like to put someone in a predicted category unless there is about a 90% or more assurance.  Thus the prediction 
is not a guarantee, but it can in a high percentage of cases save wasted money testing SNPs that are 
not relevant.

The project also makes use of shared marker value oddities within the project to identify additional subgroups of 
men who share these rare values.   These oddities are able to identify subgroups almost as reliably as a SNP.  
Family Tree DNA has felt it does not have the personnel to get involved with the shared marker value categories.  
Comparing overall marker values -- and taking into account any rare maker value oddity - -describes the method
of making a predicton as to subgroup when predictions are possible.

The patterns of the migrations of your ancestors are starting to come into focus, and the more subgroups we can
identify and more reliably place persons in a subgroup the more information is available for you.  If you are only in a general 
group with subgrouping undetermined, you are missing out on this ancestral information.

If you have any uncertainty, contact  your project administrator.
On their own, project members often order irrelevant tests, and the administrators willingly provide individualized recommendations.
See the Project Roster tab here and look under the background section of the project roster to find the e-mail of the 

To order any tests go to https://www.familytreedna.com/login.aspx   You will need your kit #.  Provision is made there for
 lost passwords.

To order a marker (these start with DYS or YCA), the cost is usually $20.   Click on the orange Order An Upgrade button, then 
choose Advanced Tests (not Advanced SNP tests) Then as the Test Type choose Y-STR, and enter the marker name (such
as DYS594) in the right and hit the Find button. Then one adds the marker chosen to the shopping cart and checks out 
for payment.   

To order a SNP test the cost is $39.  Click on the orange Order An Upgrade button, then choose Advanced Tests (not 
 Advanced SNP tests) Then as the Test Type choose SNP, and enter  the SNP name (such as L91)  in the right and hit the
Find button. Then one adds this SNP to the shopping cart and checks out for payment.