G-P15

 This is the home page for men with the P15 mutation who do not belong to any P15 SNP subgroup.

As of this writing, there are only two samples which meet this criteria.  And it is not certain that
the Melik sample is negative for the P15 subgroup L293 as reported.  He has the marker features
of that group and is within close genetic distance to that group.  He perhaps belongs to a pre-L293
subgroup not yet identified.

There are a very large number of men in the G project listed as predicted P15 in the project
roster classification.   This is solely because they have had insufficient testing to determine their
P15 subgroup.  When testing is done they will be moved to a more precise category, and such
testing is highly recommended.

P15 is younger than P287, of which it is he most common subgroup.  See G-P287 on the left tabs
for considerable information about P287.  Additional information can be found about the much earlier
mutation M201 and what is known of the G group in general in the G-M201 tab.

There are presently two known subgroups of haplogroup G, L293 and L1259.
L1259 is by far the largest.   P15 has one sister subgroup, PF3115.

Age of P15:

The only researchers to try to estimate the time to the most recent common 
ancestor of all P15 men were Rootsi et al. in 2012.  The used the differences in marker
values and a formula for making these calculations. This is not considered as reliable
as counting SNP mutations in whole genome sequencing, and additional ancestor with
the mutation may have existed prior to the coalescence times.  They calculated in 38
samples nearly the same time for P15 as for its mother group, P287, or about 16,000 yrs.  
The duration of the P15 group prior to the major P15 subgroups splitting off also seems 
relatively modest, perhaps 700 to 2000 yrs based on the number of mutations so far in full 
sequencing that are equivalent just to P15.

These are the coalescence times Rootsi calculated using a tiny number of samples:
Caucasus 16,800 yrs, Corsica 6,500 yrs, eastern Europe 10,000 yrs, Turkey
10,400 yrs.  It is unclear why the Caucasus time exceeds the total yrs.  And there is
no guarantee that the ancestors of the men today moved to the location recently.

The Distribution of P15 Men Negative for Subgroups

The paucity of men in this subgroup makes it impossible to comment on this.  The sole
confirmed member is from Iran.

Source Information

Rootsi and others made the same argument in 2012 and provided coalescence times for various
groupings.

Special Testing

The following P15 men negative for P15 subgroups or partially tested have the following results
for newer, poorly defined SNP mutations:   
                                                                                                + means positive, - means negative
 
L31+   Amir-Khosravi, Suny-Mirzaian
L142+  Suny-Mirzaian
L149+ Amir-Khosravi
L156+ Suny-Mirzaian
L223- Amir-Khosravi
L293- Amir-Khosravi

PRE-293? MEN
L31+ Melik-Avakian
L149.1- Melik-Avakian
U5+   Melik-Avakian

         more info about these SNPs can be found at:
                   type L1325, for example, in the Landmark box.  After searching, look
                               for the small L1325 in the colored area and click on it.

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