This is the home page for the men predicted or confirmed S23438 men.   It first came to light
in early 2014 through combined information from BritainsDNA Chromo 2.0 test and samples
in the 1000 Genomes Project. 


The above diagram shows S23438's position in the G tree.  It is the youngest of a
series of mutations, each one covering fewer persons as the tree branched.
All S23438 men have all the mutations shown above it in the tree.

A separate page exists for each of these mutations and the persons covered by them.
See tabs on left.   The CTS4803, G-L497, G-L140, G-P287 and G-M201 pages have significant 
additional information.  

Age of S23438

See the Time Estimates section on the left for the best estimate were able to make of
Z726 & CTS4803 & S2808's age.  The mutations for these subgroups occurred
about the same time in history around 2700 yrs ago probably in the same locale.
They have no known equivalent SNP mutations, leading to this conclusion.
This little group has male descendants that make up abt 1% of male Europeans today.
It is unclear what percentage of the group S23438 encompasses.

Geographical Distribution of S23438

As of this writing, we are just beginning testing of S23438.   In the 1000 Genomes Project,
S28348 was found in an anonymous man from Tuscany, Italy.  In addition several men
with English surnames have this mutation and a German.

Origins of S23438

One should consult the G-L497 page for info on possible origins of L497 which apply also to
S23438.  We are hoping that Y sequencing with give a better picture of how S23438 

S23438-related Maps

A map of S23438  project men should be found at:
Look at top left of map and choose the S23438 selection which is more than halfway down
the list.   However, as of this writing, all S23438 men were anonymous and no one is 
presently listed in that status in the project map.

Source information

No one has studied just S23438.