This is the home page for men predicted 2003+ or confirmed so.
The above diagram shows Z2003's position in the G tree. It is the youngest of a
series of mutations, each one covering fewer persons as the tree branched.
All Z2003 men have all the mutations shown above it in the tree.
A separate page exists for each of these mutations and the persons covered by them.
See tabs on left. The G-L140, G-P287 and G-M201 pages have significant additional
Z2003 has two SNP-defined subgroups, that of Z29424 and Z2017
But we have also included on this page the subgroups of Z2003 defined by
shared marker value oddities. When whole sequencing identifies the SNP mutations
that define these same subgroups, they will be renamed according to the SNPs and
given their own pages. We do not know how these marker subgroups related to
each other, and SNP-defining items are more reliable. The marker-defined subgroups
are DYS454=12 and DYS534 less than 15. Men in these subgroups also have each other
as the men with the closest similarity when 67 markers are compared.
Virtually all men throughout all components of Z2003 seem to share two very
characteristic marker values. The first is as DYS385a value of less than 14. And they
also have YCA values of 19/20. Each of these markers are subjects to rare additional
mutations so a few men with have different values. These marker values are seen
also in other components of U1.
Age of Z2003
The age of the overall U1/L13 group has been calculated using a method that
counts the number of SNP mutations in whole genome sequencing as about 12,000
years old. Inevitably this calculation can be made also for Z2003 and its subgroups
when whole genome sequencing is done on men in those groupings. Using the
information from 67 marker comparisons, this suggests that Z2003 might be in the
range of 5,000-7,000 years old. However, Francalacci et al. in their 2013 study
of Sardinia provided information that suggests the common male ancestor of
the Z2003 men there lived abt 9,600 yrs ago using the most widely accepted
Y-DNA mutation rate.
The DYS454=12 subgroup does not seem much over 500 yrs to the common male
ancestor. The DYS534 less than 15 group is a bit older.
Geographical Distribution of Z2003
The striking feature of Z2003 is that the great majority of the samples presently are seen
within the confines of Europe, which is an uncommon finding.
Several years ago, the samples available within the G Project were analyzed and
men reporting the following ancestries and seeming Z2003+ status made up these
percentage of G samples in Europe.
Germany, 16%.....Italy, 11%.....Netherlands, 10%.....France, 10%.....Poland, 9%.....Spain, 9%
.....Ireland, 6%.....England, 5%.....Switzerland, 4%
Using unique value combinations seen in Z2003, the percentage of Z2003 in G men can be
estimated in various locales. These are Z2003 numbers per likely G men at various sites,
mostly from samples in the YHRD public database:
NE ITALY Emilia Romagna 0/5, Venice 0/9, Bologna 1/7, Val Badio 0/1, NW ITALY
Lombardy 0/9, Liguria 1/5, CENTRAL ITALY Latium 2/10, Umbria 0/4, Marche 2/10,
Tuscany 2/10, Central Tuscany, 0/3, n.e. Latium 1/7, W. Campania, 0/4, Tuscany-
Latium border 0/10, Apennine Marche 0/4, Central Marche 0/6, n.w. Apulia 1/6,
S. E. ITALY Puglia 0/5, S. Apulia 1/8, S.W. ITALY W. Calabria 0/8, SICILY 7 small
towns 0/12, island wide 1/10, SARDINIA southeast 1/26, Sorgono in highlands 0/12,
Tempio in north 1/13 ELBA 0/10, IBIZA 0/7, MAJORCA 0/4, MINORCA 0/0,
N. E. SPAIN Barcelona 0/8, Pyrenees 0/3, N. CENTRAL SPAIN Basques 0/4, Asturias
3/5, Cantabria 0/5, Madrid 0/7, E. CENTRAL SPAIN Valencia 0/2, S. CENTRAL SPAIN
Andalucia 0/1, W. CENTRAL SPAIN Caceres 0/4 N.W. SPAIN Santiago de Compostela
1/4 PORTUGAL Central 0/30, North 1/26, South 0/5, E. CENTRAL FRANCE Lyon 0/7,
CENTRAL FRANCE Paris 0/2, N. E. France Strasbourg 1/6, SWITZERLAND all 2/7,
N. W. SWITZERLAND Bern 0/4, W. SWITZERLAND Lausanne 0/10, BELGIUM/HOLLAND
Brussels 1/6, Groningen, 0/3, Leiden 1/8, Leuven 1/6, Zeeland 0/1, S.W. GERMANY
Freiburg 5/28, Stuttgart 1/33, S. E. GERMANY Munich 4/20, W. CENTRAL GERMANY
Cologne 1/12, Duesseldorf 1/10, N. CENTRAL GERMANY Hamburg 1/10, N. E. GERMANY
Rostock 1/10, Berlin 4/27, Leipzig 7/41, Chemnitz 0/35 ENGLAND Birmingham 0/1
IRELAND countrywide 1/2, GREENLAND, 0/0, ICELAND 0/0 DENMARK 1/7,
ESTONIA 0/0, LITHUANIA 0/2, NORTH POLAND Bydgoszcz 0/4, Bialystok Tatars 0/7,
Bialystock Old Believers 0/0, Byelorussians 0/2, Others at Bialystock 0/2, SOUTH POLAND
Krakow 0/3, CZECH REP. Central Bohemia 6/13, HUNGARY Budapest 0/8, Szegeds 0/1,
SOUTHEAST AUSTRIA, Graz 1/2. WEST AUSTRIA, Tyrol 1/23
ROMANIA Skelelys 1/8, Countrywide 1/1, Lunca de Sus 0/7, Miercurea Cuic 0/3,
BULGARIA 0/9, CROATIA Zagreb 0/3, Krk Island 0/0,
BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA Doboj-Banja 0/1, ALBANIA all 0/2, MACEDONIA 1/6,
CENTRAL GREECE 0/2, Athens, 0/7, CYPRUS 0/22, LIBYA 0/5,
TUNISIA Tunis 0/0, Andalusia Arabs 0/0, Berbers 0/0, Zriba 0/0
The Rootsi et al. study in 2012 for the first time provided L13+ samples from outside
Europe. These were listed as M527 samples (another name for the L78 alternative
to L13). One each was found among the Abazas and Abkhaz of the western Caucasus;
one each from Georgia, Armenia, Estonia, Belarus and three from the Ukraine. Three
were found among the Druze of the Levant, one among Palestinians and an amazing
five among 30 Iranian Azeri. There were no other samples from Iran. This 17% among
Iranian Azeri is higher than anything reported in Europe. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Azeri
The status of these non-Europeans for L13's subgroup Z2003 is not determined.
Francalacci et al. in 2013 provided info that almost 10% of G persons in Sardinia
are Z2022+ and thus probably Z2003+.
The DYS454-12 subgroup is overwhelmingly British in ancestry as is the DYS534 less
than 15 group.
Origins of Z2003
Because Z2003 has a heavy concentration in Europe, speculation will arise that it originated
there. This is certainly a possibility, but if the original Z2003 group consisted of a
small family band that intermarried within it then they could have lived most
anywhere and then moved to Europe en masse. Because the sister group of L13/Z2003 has
a heavy concentration in the western Caucasus Mountains, Z2003's forebears
may have initially lived there. But it is also possible that both sister groups lived
somewhere else and migrated independently to both Europe and the Caucasus.
And we have from the Rootsi study that there is a concentration in Iran, a country
from which we have few samples presently.
DNA testing of ancient skeletons has the best chance of resolving the possibilities.
There are no hints at present how and where the marker-defined subgroup broke
off from the main group..
On the Project Roster, subgroups have their own maps.
Look at top left of map and choose the Z2003 subgroup. Just below this are the maps for the
subgroups of Z2003.
Rootsi and others in 2012 provided "M527" samples which are more likely mostly Z2003.
Francalacci and others in 2013 provided info about Z2022 men in Sardinia likely Z2003
supplement has info.
Results likely Z2003+
Marker designations in blue
YHRD is a worldwide public database
There is nothing really different among the Near Eastern and Iranian samples in the Rootsi study that distinguishes them from European ones.