This is the home page for men proven L201+ or predicted so. So far the typical marker
values of L201 -- combined with typical ancestral background -- are solid
predictors of L201 status.
L201 is the most recent branch of a series of branches. The next most recent
was L1324 which includes more persons that L201. Information about the
overall L1324 group can be found to the left in the G-L1324 tab. Even earlier
before that was the M342 branch which incorporates all men
designated as G1. See G-M342. Finally the oldest is the M201 mutations
which encompasses all men within haplogroup G. See G-M201.
As compared to the other subgroups of L1324, only L201 men have 17 for marker
DYS458. Within L1324, both the Kuwaitis and Jewish men share
DYS385=14-15 which is different in the Kazakhs. These values can change at any
time. So the SNP L201 is far superior to unreliable markers for use in defining the
L201 actually includes the L202 and L203 mutations as part of the subgroup.
While theoretically one of these could be an additional subgroup of the
L201 subgroup, the currently available samples seem descendants of men
who developed all of these. It is possible that a few of the men might not
have all three mutations, and this would constitute a new subgroup. But
some persons can be presumed to have all three based on earlier testing,
and whether testing for all three SNPs would be helpful should be
discussed with the project administrator.
Composition of the L201 Subgroup
So far all the members of the L201 subgroup seem to share Ashkenazi Jewish
ancestry, and the locations mentioned by L201 project members of their ancestral
locations are almost all within the old Pale of Settlement whose rulers granted
refuge to Ashkenazis fleeing intolerance in other countries.
Mentioned in the ancestral entries are the modern-day countries of Belarus, Poland,
Lithuania, Latvia and Russia. In other Ashkenazi Jewish G subgroups, there are
also often men with listed ancestry in central or southeastern Europe -- something
so far missing here. Surnames are quite diverse in the L201 subgroup, consistent
with the late adoption of surnames among Ashkenazis. The practice of taking
matrilineal surnames sometimes further confuses the picture.
I have compiled information on the various Jewish subgroups of haplogroup G
One can see in the History tab there if someone has subsequently altered the
In the whole Y sequencing done in the Jewish Z724 subgroup, we found that
the group itself was over 3000 yrs old though the Z724 Jewish members probably
shared a common ancestor in the Middle Ages -- as with the L201 subgroup. So
the L201 ancestor may have lived most anywhere and could have professed pagan
or other beliefs. Full sequencing will provide some of the answers to narrow the
The Age of the L201 Subgroup
Among the sister subgroups to L201 amidst the L1324 members, the closest in time
are the Kuwaits whose common ancestor with L201 probably lived in the period of
4000-5000 yrs ago. Whole Y-DNA sequencing within these subgroups will allow
a more precise calculation. Within the L201 subgroup the most marker value
differences calculated among L201 men is 9. The highest likelihood is that is
the common ancestor of all the currently available L201 men lived sometime in
the Middle Ages. But it is possible that the actual date is over 2000 yrs. There
may exist men who branch off in between the men in the current grouping of
L201 men and the Kuwaiti subgroup, but they have not yet been identified.
Maps for the L201 Subgroup
This subgroup is too new for maps to have appeared in research studies. The SNP subgroups
have their own maps. The L201 subgroup is listed somewhat near the top of the listing
of G subgroups at:
Look at top left of map and choose near the top the L201 subgroup.
Origin of the L201 Subgroup
It would be speculative to try to pinpoint the origins of the L201 subgroup based on
current evidence. Initially only the Kazakh subgroup of L1324 was available for
comparison. In between the Pale of Settlement and Kazakhstan once stood in
the early Middle Ages the Khazar Empire.
Leaders of the Khazar Empire converted to Judaism. So speculation existed
whether with the dissolution of that empire some men migrated to the Pale of
Settlement. But the finding that the relationship to the Khazak men is much
older in time than the Khazar Empire makes this relationship no more logical
than any others than could be conceived of as to how the L201 Ashkenazis arrived
in n.e. Europe. There were Jews in the Pale of Settlement in the late Middle Ages
and how they arrived there is not a fully settled question.
There has been a debate among Jewish researchers as to the contributions of
earlier lands in the current Ashkenazi population. The only summary of this
debate seems to be at:
On p 11, of the article by Elhaik in support of the Khazar Empire, he indicates
"over 70% of European Jews and almost all Eastern European Jews cluster
with Georgian, Armenian, and Azerbaijani Jews within the Caucasus rim."
In my Wikipedia entry, I (Ray Banks) point out that the composition of G
within the overall population and these Jewish population differs. They did
not subtype G for subgroups which further complicates evaluating this.
Also not well covered in this debate article is that in the last several years,
two studies pointed to the Near East as the origin for today's population in
the Caucasus itself. In the western Caucasus, half the population is G-L1226.
No known Jewish groups among these. In the central Caucasus, more than
half the population is G-P16/P18. There is a Jewish subgroup of these men.
And uniquely in the region in the central area some G-Z724 men have been
located. There is a Jewish subgroup among them. Most Ashkenazis are
haplogroup J which is dominant in the Middle East. In addition, both sides
of the current argument seem to omit the information from the Mountain
Jews of the eastern Caucasus, a small group who migrated from Persia.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mountain_Jews The available marker samples from them
suggests the G persons might belong within L13. Better sequencing of Y-DNA
will bring all this into better focus and establish more reliable time relationships.
Authors also need to look specifically at G subgroups in comparisons.
Subgroups within L201?
Subgroups certainly exist within L201 men. The available marker values do
not suggest anything reliable that is shared among some of the members so as
to allow using that for additional subgrouping. But whole sequencing will surely
allow identification of the additional subgroups.
There have never been any publications specifically looking at L201 men in
Elhaik in 2012 argued in favor of the Khazar Empire origin of Ashkenazis
The article arguing for a genome-wide origin of Ashkenazis by Behar and others:
Balanovsky and others in 2011 suggested a Near East origin for the Caucasus populations:
Yunusbayev and others argued the same in 2011:
El-Sibai and others in 2009 reported on G1 in Syria and Jordan and provided
a sample from Syria suspicious similar to L201 samples with DYS458=17:
A history of Ashkenazis in Poland:
Weinryb, Bernard D., The Jews of Poland, A Social and Economic History of the Jewish Community in
Poland, from 1100-1800, Jewish Publication Society of America, 1972
Similar to G-L201 samples
Marker designations in blue with corresponding marker values below each
The following L201 men or predicted L201 men have the following results
for newer, poorly defined SNP mutations: [results may be from varied labs]
+ means positive, - means negative
L201+ Epner, Epstein, Kabaker, Mason, Pines
L202+ Epstein, Kabaker, Mason, Pines
L203+ Epstein, Kabaker, Mason, Pines
more info about these SNPs can be found at:
type L1325, for example, in the Landmark box. After searching, look
for the small L1325 in the colored area and click on it.